Field Hockey pitch Zwelitsha

Why a Synthetic Hockey pitch?

The artificial surfaces of a synthetic hockey pitch give the players a lot more handle of the ball. Coupled with improved ball speed, hockey has turn out to be a more rapidly and a lot more fascinating game.

Extra information and facts on Field Hockey pitch and building there of.

A hockey pitch is the playing surface for the game of field hockey. Historically, the game was played on organic turf (grass) but presently it is predominantly played on an artificial turf. The transition onto artificial pitches came for the duration of the 1970s and was created mandatory for important competitions in 1976. All the lines, markings and purpose specifications are outlined by the International Hockey Federation in “The Guidelines of Hockey”.

All line markings on the pitch kind aspect of the location which they define. For instance, a ball on the side line is nevertheless in the field of play a ball on the line of the penalty circle is in the penalty circle a foul committed more than the 23-metre (25-yard) line has occurred in the 23-metre location. A ball need to absolutely cross a boundary line to be out of play, and a ball need to wholly cross the purpose line prior to a purpose is scored.

Due to the original formulation of the guidelines in England, the regular dimensions of a hockey pitch have been initially expressed in imperial units. The guidelines are now expressed explicitly in metric dimensions (because 1998), while the use of the imperial terms remains widespread in some nations

Field of play on a hockey pitch

Colored pitches are utilised to distinguish the field of play (green or blue) from the run-off (red/blue/yellow/orange/and so forth).

The hockey pitch is rectangular in shape. The longer perimeter edges are named the side line, the opposing shorter edges are referred as the back line and the portion of this involving the purpose posts is identified as the purpose line. The side line need to measure 91.40 m and the back line really should measure 55.00 m. There need to be a minimum run-off of two m at the sidelines and three m at the backlines which could be a various surface for the final meter. All line markings need to be white and 75 millimeters wide. In every corner of the pitch, a corner flag of no a lot more than 300 mm square is attached to a post of height 1.20–1.50 m.

Historically, the pitch dimensions have been imperial and have been replaced by metric equivalents in 1998. The initial recorded guidelines represented what London clubs have been utilizing at the time. Surbiton Hockey Club’s minutes from 1876 stated that pitches have been to be “100–150 yards (91–137 m) extended and 50–80 yards (46–73 m) wide”. Guidelines by the Hockey Association of England in 1886 specified “one hundred yards extended by 55 to 60 yards (50 to 55 m) wide”.34 In 1905, the International Guidelines Board permitted the width of the pitch to be “up to 66 yards (60 m)” but this choice was reversed in 1909.five In 1975, the present width of 60 yards was written into the guidelines.34

On artificial surfaces, the field of play really should be coloured green, ultramarine blue or signal blue. It is permitted for the run-off portion of the pitch to be an option colour. The London 2012 Olympics began a new trend for blue hockey pitches, due to the fact blue turf assists tv viewers to clearly see the ball and markings on the hockey pitch for the duration of gameplay. Not all hockey pitches have to be blue, but a yellow ball on blue turf is now the regular for experienced field hockey tournaments.

Target

A hockey purpose at the 1960 Summer season Olympics. The purpose is deeper at ground level with side and backboards about the base.

Targets consist of two upright posts placed equidistant from the center of the backline, joined at the best by a horizontal crossbar. The inner edges of the posts need to be three.66 metres apart, and the decrease edge of the crossbar need to be two.14 metres (7 ft) above the ground. The goalposts and crossbar need to be white and rectangular in shape with width 50 millimetres and a depth of 50 to 75 millimeters (.

The purpose need to be at least 1.20 m deep at ground level and at least .90 m deep at crossbar level. The purpose location need to be delimited at ground level by a purpose backboard and two sideboards of height 460 millimetres (18 in). Affixed to these boards, the posts and crossbar is a net to quit the ball.eight

Hockey nets can come in various dimensions based on how deep at ground level and at crossbar level the purpose is. Standard dimensions for a regular field hockey net are about three.7m (W) x two.1m (H) x 1.2m (D).7

The initial hockey targets have been “7 feet (two.1 m) tall posts placed six yards (five.five m) apart” but have been lowered to four yards (three.7 m) apart in the 1886 guidelines. In 1987, a rule was introduced so that at penalty corners “the initial hit at purpose really should not cross the purpose-line greater than 18 inches (460 mm)”. This saw the introduction of a sideboard and backboard to the targets which are now mandatory.34

Circle

A view of the penalty circle (strong line), the broken circle five m from it, and the penalty spot.

A purpose is scored when the ball passes absolutely more than the purpose line but only if the ball was played by an offensive player in the penalty circle. Moreover, the circle marks the location a goalkeeper could play the ball with any aspect of his physique and the location exactly where an infringement by a defender outcomes in a penalty corner. The terminology circle (or D) is broadly utilised while the location is truly formed by a three.66-metre (four yd) straight line, parallel to the purpose line, connected to two 14.63-metre (16 yd) quadrant arcs.910

The 1876 guidelines stated that “no targets shall be permitted if the ball be hit from a distance of a lot more than 15 yards (14 m) from the nearest goalpost”. A visible “striking circle” with “radius of 15 yards” was codified in 1886.34 The radius of the circle was improved to 16 yards (15 m) in 1951 for men’s hockey and 1968 for women’s hockey.five Any cost-free-hit inside five m of the circle has slightly various guidelines from other folks regarding other players’ distance a broken circle five m from the penalty circle denotes this place.ten

A penalty spot is centrally positioned straight in front of the purpose and utilised for a penalty stroke. The spot is 150 mm in diameter and its centre is six.475 m from the outdoors of the purpose line.ten Penalty strokes have been introduced in 1963 for deliberately stopping a particular goal3 they have been initially taken eight yards (7.three m) from purpose. In 1973, a stroke could also be awarded for a deliberate foul in the circle and the spot was moved to 7 yards (six.four m) from purpose the following year.five

Other markings

Simon Gougnard prepares to take a penalty corner from the ten m mark. The five m line above demarcates the closest position a defender could stand.

A half-way line, parallel to the back line, divides the pitch in two. The start out of every period of play and resumption of play following a purpose begins with all players in the half they are defending. The line was also utilised for the obselete offside rule.three

Every half of the pitch is then divided once more by a line, referred to as the 23 metre line or 25 yard line, positioned 22.90 m11 from every back line. Historically, this was initial utilised to resume play right after the ball passed more than the back line and marked by flags at the side of the pitch. In 1949, deliberate defensive offenses in this location resulted in a penalty corner. From 1961, players on the defensive group who have been not involved at the penalty corner stood behind this line (this was then moved to the half-way line two years later). The line was also utilised for the offside rule involving 1987 till the rule was abolished in 1996.three Presently, there are detailed guidelines concerning fouls and cost-free-hits in the 23 metre area of the pitch.12 Considering the fact that 2015, the 23 metre line has also been utilised for the attacking group to resume play when it has gone more than the back line (this replaced extended corners).13

There are extra markings 300 mm extended and perpendicular to the back line that denote distances of ten m and five m from every purpose post. These are relevant at a penalty corner the former is the mark from which the attacking group requires the penalty corner and the latter is the closest position which a defender could stand. These marks had been five and ten yards (four.six and 9.1 m) in earlier versions of the guidelines.three There is a equivalent mark five m from along the side line (from exactly where extended corners have been formerly taken) and a mark 14.six m along the side line indicating the level of the best of the penalty circle. There are also 150 mm extended markings exactly where the purpose posts are situated.14

Artificial playing surface

“artificial grass permits less difficult ball handle and this in itself assists to minimize the quantity of infringements of the rules—which signifies significantly less whistle and fewer stoppages. The game hence becomes less difficult to stick to, as nicely as getting a more rapidly spectacle and substantially a lot more fascinating from a spectator point of view.”

Historically, the game was created on organic grass turf. On the other hand, in 1976, the International Hockey Federation (FIH) created artificial pitches mandatory at all important competitions.17 The 1976 Summer season Olympics in Montreal was the initial of these nonetheless at this time handful of players had observed or played on synthetic pitches.18 Though it is nevertheless permissible to play on organic turf all national competitions and international matches need to be played on an artificial surface.19 Elite-level competitions, such as the Olympic Games and Planet Cup, demand a water-primarily based playing surface. On the other hand, due to water conservation efforts, this is not observed as a extended-term sustainable selection and option elite surfaces that do not demand water are getting researched.20

There are 3 most important sorts of artificial hockey pitch surface:

   • Unfilled or water-primarily based – artificial fibers that are densely packed for stabilization, demands irrigation or watering to steer clear of pitch put on

    • Dressed or sand-dressed – artificial fibers can be significantly less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for aspect of the pile depth

    • Filled or sand-filled – artificial fibers can be longer and significantly less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for one hundred% of the pile depth

On water-primarily based pitches, shorter fibers and wetted turf minimize friction and enhance the speed at which the game can be played. On the other hand, these pitches demand watering prior to, for the duration of and right after the game and upkeep expenses are substantial.

Sand-dressed pitches price a lot more than sand-filled pitches but are preferable for hockey as there is an absence of sand close to the playing surface. On the other hand, a multi-goal surface appropriate for sports like association football and tennis is frequently expected and hockey could not be the predominant sport. There are several various specifications and categorizations for artificial turf like shock absorption, surface rebound, friction, and strength outlined by the International Hockey Federation.26 Not too long ago, longer-pile third-generation or 3G pitches have turn out to be common, in particular for football, but these do not normally meet the FIH’s test criteria they are frequently also inconsistent and slow.27

Criticism

The Planet Hockey magazine reported on the initial hockey tournament played on an artificial pitch in 1975—a trial occasion in Montreal prior to the Olympics—and mentioned the surface had “massive positive aspects”.1516 Steve Ruskin, of Sports Illustrated, mentioned that “A slow, analytical game gave way to 1 of nonstop, accurate-hop action.”28 On the other hand, it has been stated that the choice to make artificial surfaces mandatory drastically favored a lot more affluent Western nations who could afford these new pitches.29 Just before the switch to an artificial surface the Indian men’s hockey group have been dominant, winning seven of the eight Olympic gold medals involving 1928 and 1964.28 In 1996, Indian hockey player Ajit Pal Singh stated that regardless of its size ” can afford only 12 or so Artificial Turf fields”.Sardara Singh, captain of the Indian men’s hockey group, mentioned that “hockey players in India play on astroturf [sic] for the initial time at the age of 19 or 20 and come across it really hard to adapt.”29 On the other hand, the Pakistan hockey group have performed nicely following the modify of surface regardless of the nation getting worse off economically and obtaining fewer artificial pitches.16 When describing the modify of surface, Ruskin mentioned that “for India it was like beginning more than, with all nations even in field hockey

Field Hockey pitch Zululand

Why a Synthetic Hockey pitch?

The artificial surfaces of a synthetic hockey pitch give the players more control of the ball. Coupled with increased ball speed, hockey has become a faster and more exciting game.

More information on Field Hockey pitch and construction there of.

A hockey pitch is the playing surface for the game of field hockey. Historically, the game was played on natural turf (grass) but nowadays it is predominantly played on an artificial turf. The transition onto artificial pitches came during the 1970s and was made mandatory for major competitions in 1976. All the lines, markings and goal specifications are outlined by the International Hockey Federation in “The Rules of Hockey”.

All line markings on the pitch form part of the area which they define. For example, a ball on the side line is still in the field of play; a ball on the line of the penalty circle is in the penalty circle; a foul committed over the 23-metre (25-yard) line has occurred in the 23-metre area. A ball must completely cross a boundary line to be out of play, and a ball must wholly cross the goal line before a goal is scored.

Due to the original formulation of the rules in England, the standard dimensions of a hockey pitch were originally expressed in imperial units. The rules are now expressed explicitly in metric dimensions (since 1998), although the use of the imperial terms remains common in some countries

Field of play on a hockey pitch

Colored pitches are used to distinguish the field of play (green or blue) from the run-off (red/blue/yellow/orange/etc).

The hockey pitch is rectangular in shape. The longer perimeter edges are called the side line, the opposing shorter edges are referred as the back line and the portion of this between the goal posts is known as the goal line. The side line must measure 91.40 m and the back line should measure 55.00 m. There must be a minimum run-off of 2 m at the sidelines and 3 m at the backlines which may be a different surface for the final meter. All line markings must be white and 75 millimeters wide. In each corner of the pitch, a corner flag of no more than 300 mm square is attached to a post of height 1.20–1.50 m.

Historically, the pitch dimensions were imperial and were replaced by metric equivalents in 1998. The first recorded rules represented what London clubs were using at the time. Surbiton Hockey Club’s minutes from 1876 stated that pitches were to be “100–150 yards (91–137 m) long and 50–80 yards (46–73 m) wide”. Rules by the Hockey Association of England in 1886 specified “100 yards long by 55 to 60 yards (50 to 55 m) wide”.34 In 1905, the International Rules Board allowed the width of the pitch to be “up to 66 yards (60 m)” but this decision was reversed in 1909.5 In 1975, the current width of 60 yards was written into the rules.34

On artificial surfaces, the field of play should be coloured green, ultramarine blue or signal blue. It is permitted for the run-off portion of the pitch to be an alternative color. The London 2012 Olympics started a new trend for blue hockey pitches, because blue turf helps television viewers to clearly see the ball and markings on the hockey pitch during gameplay. Not all hockey pitches have to be blue, but a yellow ball on blue turf is now the standard for professional field hockey tournaments.

Goal

A hockey goal at the 1960 Summer Olympics. The goal is deeper at ground level with side and backboards around the base.

Goals consist of two upright posts placed equidistant from the center of the backline, joined at the top by a horizontal crossbar. The inner edges of the posts must be 3.66 metres apart, and the lower edge of the crossbar must be 2.14 metres (7 ft) above the ground. The goalposts and crossbar must be white and rectangular in shape with width 50 millimetres and a depth of 50 to 75 millimeters (.

The goal must be at least 1.20 m deep at ground level and at least 0.90 m deep at crossbar level. The goal area must be delimited at ground level by a goal backboard and two sideboards of height 460 millimetres (18 in). Affixed to these boards, the posts and crossbar is a net to stop the ball.8

Hockey nets can come in different dimensions depending on how deep at ground level and at crossbar level the goal is. Typical dimensions for a standard field hockey net are around 3.7m (W) x 2.1m (H) x 1.2m (D).7

The first hockey goals were “7 feet (2.1 m) tall posts placed 6 yards (5.5 m) apart” but were reduced to 4 yards (3.7 m) apart in the 1886 rules. In 1987, a rule was introduced so that at penalty corners “the first hit at goal should not cross the goal-line higher than 18 inches (460 mm)”. This saw the introduction of a sideboard and backboard to the goals which are now mandatory.34

Circle

A view of the penalty circle (solid line), the broken circle 5 m from it, and the penalty spot.

A goal is scored when the ball passes completely over the goal line but only if the ball was played by an offensive player in the penalty circle. Additionally, the circle marks the area a goalkeeper may play the ball with any part of his body and the area where an infringement by a defender results in a penalty corner. The terminology circle (or D) is widely used although the area is actually formed by a 3.66-metre (4 yd) straight line, parallel to the goal line, connected to two 14.63-metre (16 yd) quadrant arcs.910

The 1876 rules stated that “no goals shall be allowed if the ball be hit from a distance of more than 15 yards (14 m) from the nearest goalpost”. A visible “striking circle” with “radius of 15 yards” was codified in 1886.34 The radius of the circle was increased to 16 yards (15 m) in 1951 for men’s hockey and 1968 for women’s hockey.5 Any free-hit within 5 m of the circle has slightly different rules from others concerning other players’ distance; a broken circle 5 m from the penalty circle denotes this location.10

A penalty spot is centrally positioned directly in front of the goal and used for a penalty stroke. The spot is 150 mm in diameter and its centre is 6.475 m from the outside of the goal line.10 Penalty strokes were introduced in 1963 for deliberately stopping a certain goal;3 they were originally taken 8 yards (7.3 m) from goal. In 1973, a stroke could also be awarded for a deliberate foul in the circle and the spot was moved to 7 yards (6.4 m) from goal the following year.5

Other markings

Simon Gougnard prepares to take a penalty corner from the 10 m mark. The 5 m line above demarcates the closest position a defender may stand.

A half-way line, parallel to the back line, divides the pitch in two. The start of each period of play and resumption of play following a goal starts with all players in the half they are defending. The line was also used for the obselete offside rule.3

Each half of the pitch is then divided again by a line, referred to as the 23 metre line or 25 yard line, positioned 22.90 m11 from each back line. Historically, this was first used to resume play after the ball passed over the back line and marked by flags at the side of the pitch. In 1949, deliberate defensive offenses in this area resulted in a penalty corner. From 1961, players on the defensive team who were not involved at the penalty corner stood behind this line (this was then moved to the half-way line two years later). The line was also used for the offside rule between 1987 until the rule was abolished in 1996.3 Nowadays, there are detailed rules regarding fouls and free-hits in the 23 metre region of the pitch.12 Since 2015, the 23 metre line has also been used for the attacking team to resume play when it has gone over the back line (this replaced long corners).13

There are additional markings 300 mm long and perpendicular to the back line that denote distances of 10 m and 5 m from each goal post. These are relevant at a penalty corner; the former is the mark from which the attacking team takes the penalty corner and the latter is the closest position which a defender may stand. These marks had been 5 and 10 yards (4.6 and 9.1 m) in earlier versions of the rules.3 There is a similar mark 5 m from along the side line (from where long corners were formerly taken) and a mark 14.6 m along the side line indicating the level of the top of the penalty circle. There are also 150 mm long markings where the goal posts are situated.14

Artificial playing surface

“artificial grass permits easier ball control and this in itself helps to reduce the number of infringements of the rules—which means less whistle and fewer stoppages. The game thus becomes easier to follow, as well as being a faster spectacle and much more interesting from a spectator point of view.”

Historically, the game was developed on natural grass turf. However, in 1976, the International Hockey Federation (FIH) made artificial pitches mandatory at all major competitions.17 The 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal was the first of these; however at this time few players had seen or played on synthetic pitches.18 Although it is still permissible to play on natural turf all national competitions and international matches must be played on an artificial surface.19 Elite-level competitions, such as the Olympic Games and World Cup, require a water-based playing surface. However, due to water conservation efforts, this is not seen as a long-term sustainable option and alternative elite surfaces that do not require water are being researched.20

There are three main types of artificial hockey pitch surface:

   • Unfilled or water-based – artificial fibers that are densely packed for stabilization, requires irrigation or watering to avoid pitch wear

    • Dressed or sand-dressed – artificial fibers can be less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for part of the pile depth

    • Filled or sand-filled – artificial fibers can be longer and less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for 100% of the pile depth

On water-based pitches, shorter fibers and wetted turf reduce friction and increase the speed at which the game can be played. However, these pitches require watering before, during and after the game and maintenance costs are significant.

Sand-dressed pitches cost more than sand-filled pitches but are preferable for hockey as there is an absence of sand close to the playing surface. However, a multi-purpose surface suitable for sports including association football and tennis is often required and hockey may not be the predominant sport. There are many different specifications and categorizations for artificial turf including shock absorption, surface rebound, friction, and strength outlined by the International Hockey Federation.26 Recently, longer-pile third-generation or 3G pitches have become popular, especially for football, but these do not usually meet the FIH’s test criteria; they are often too inconsistent and slow.27

Criticism

The World Hockey magazine reported on the first hockey tournament played on an artificial pitch in 1975—a trial event in Montreal prior to the Olympics—and said the surface had “enormous benefits”.1516 Steve Ruskin, of Sports Illustrated, said that “A slow, analytical game gave way to one of nonstop, true-hop action.”28 However, it has been stated that the decision to make artificial surfaces mandatory greatly favored more affluent Western countries who could afford these new pitches.29 Before the switch to an artificial surface the Indian men’s hockey team were dominant, winning seven of the eight Olympic gold medals between 1928 and 1964.28 In 1996, Indian hockey player Ajit Pal Singh stated that despite its size ” can afford only 12 or so Artificial Turf fields”.Sardara Singh, captain of the Indian men’s hockey team, said that “hockey players in India play on astroturf [sic] for the first time at the age of 19 or 20 and find it hard to adapt.”29 However, the Pakistan hockey team have performed well following the change of surface despite the country being worse off economically and having fewer artificial pitches.16 When describing the change of surface, Ruskin said that “for India it was like starting over, with all nations even in field hockey

Field Hockey pitch Zoar

Why a Synthetic Hockey pitch?

The artificial surfaces of a synthetic hockey pitch give the players a lot more manage of the ball. Coupled with improved ball speed, hockey has turn into a more rapidly and a lot more thrilling game.

Much more details on Field Hockey pitch and building there of.

A hockey pitch is the playing surface for the game of field hockey. Historically, the game was played on all-natural turf (grass) but currently it is predominantly played on an artificial turf. The transition onto artificial pitches came for the duration of the 1970s and was produced mandatory for significant competitions in 1976. All the lines, markings and aim specifications are outlined by the International Hockey Federation in “The Guidelines of Hockey”.

All line markings on the pitch type aspect of the location which they define. For instance, a ball on the side line is nevertheless in the field of play a ball on the line of the penalty circle is in the penalty circle a foul committed more than the 23-metre (25-yard) line has occurred in the 23-metre location. A ball should fully cross a boundary line to be out of play, and a ball should wholly cross the aim line ahead of a aim is scored.

Due to the original formulation of the guidelines in England, the typical dimensions of a hockey pitch had been initially expressed in imperial units. The guidelines are now expressed explicitly in metric dimensions (considering that 1998), while the use of the imperial terms remains prevalent in some nations

Field of play on a hockey pitch

Colored pitches are employed to distinguish the field of play (green or blue) from the run-off (red/blue/yellow/orange/and so forth).

The hockey pitch is rectangular in shape. The longer perimeter edges are referred to as the side line, the opposing shorter edges are referred as the back line and the portion of this amongst the aim posts is recognized as the aim line. The side line should measure 91.40 m and the back line really should measure 55.00 m. There should be a minimum run-off of two m at the sidelines and three m at the backlines which could be a distinctive surface for the final meter. All line markings should be white and 75 millimeters wide. In every corner of the pitch, a corner flag of no a lot more than 300 mm square is attached to a post of height 1.20–1.50 m.

Historically, the pitch dimensions had been imperial and had been replaced by metric equivalents in 1998. The initially recorded guidelines represented what London clubs had been making use of at the time. Surbiton Hockey Club’s minutes from 1876 stated that pitches had been to be “100–150 yards (91–137 m) lengthy and 50–80 yards (46–73 m) wide”. Guidelines by the Hockey Association of England in 1886 specified “one hundred yards lengthy by 55 to 60 yards (50 to 55 m) wide”.34 In 1905, the International Guidelines Board permitted the width of the pitch to be “up to 66 yards (60 m)” but this choice was reversed in 1909.five In 1975, the existing width of 60 yards was written into the guidelines.34

On artificial surfaces, the field of play really should be coloured green, ultramarine blue or signal blue. It is permitted for the run-off portion of the pitch to be an option colour. The London 2012 Olympics began a new trend for blue hockey pitches, for the reason that blue turf assists tv viewers to clearly see the ball and markings on the hockey pitch for the duration of gameplay. Not all hockey pitches have to be blue, but a yellow ball on blue turf is now the typical for experienced field hockey tournaments.

Target

A hockey aim at the 1960 Summer season Olympics. The aim is deeper at ground level with side and backboards about the base.

Objectives consist of two upright posts placed equidistant from the center of the backline, joined at the prime by a horizontal crossbar. The inner edges of the posts should be three.66 metres apart, and the reduced edge of the crossbar should be two.14 metres (7 ft) above the ground. The goalposts and crossbar should be white and rectangular in shape with width 50 millimetres and a depth of 50 to 75 millimeters (.

The aim should be at least 1.20 m deep at ground level and at least .90 m deep at crossbar level. The aim location should be delimited at ground level by a aim backboard and two sideboards of height 460 millimetres (18 in). Affixed to these boards, the posts and crossbar is a net to cease the ball.eight

Hockey nets can come in distinctive dimensions based on how deep at ground level and at crossbar level the aim is. Standard dimensions for a typical field hockey net are about three.7m (W) x two.1m (H) x 1.2m (D).7

The initially hockey objectives had been “7 feet (two.1 m) tall posts placed six yards (five.five m) apart” but had been decreased to four yards (three.7 m) apart in the 1886 guidelines. In 1987, a rule was introduced so that at penalty corners “the initially hit at aim really should not cross the aim-line greater than 18 inches (460 mm)”. This saw the introduction of a sideboard and backboard to the objectives which are now mandatory.34

Circle

A view of the penalty circle (strong line), the broken circle five m from it, and the penalty spot.

A aim is scored when the ball passes fully more than the aim line but only if the ball was played by an offensive player in the penalty circle. On top of that, the circle marks the location a goalkeeper could play the ball with any aspect of his physique and the location exactly where an infringement by a defender outcomes in a penalty corner. The terminology circle (or D) is broadly employed while the location is really formed by a three.66-metre (four yd) straight line, parallel to the aim line, connected to two 14.63-metre (16 yd) quadrant arcs.910

The 1876 guidelines stated that “no objectives shall be permitted if the ball be hit from a distance of a lot more than 15 yards (14 m) from the nearest goalpost”. A visible “striking circle” with “radius of 15 yards” was codified in 1886.34 The radius of the circle was improved to 16 yards (15 m) in 1951 for men’s hockey and 1968 for women’s hockey.five Any free of charge-hit inside five m of the circle has slightly distinctive guidelines from other individuals regarding other players’ distance a broken circle five m from the penalty circle denotes this place.ten

A penalty spot is centrally positioned straight in front of the aim and employed for a penalty stroke. The spot is 150 mm in diameter and its centre is six.475 m from the outdoors of the aim line.ten Penalty strokes had been introduced in 1963 for deliberately stopping a specific goal3 they had been initially taken eight yards (7.three m) from aim. In 1973, a stroke could also be awarded for a deliberate foul in the circle and the spot was moved to 7 yards (six.four m) from aim the following year.five

Other markings

Simon Gougnard prepares to take a penalty corner from the ten m mark. The five m line above demarcates the closest position a defender could stand.

A half-way line, parallel to the back line, divides the pitch in two. The begin of every period of play and resumption of play following a aim begins with all players in the half they are defending. The line was also employed for the obselete offside rule.three

Every half of the pitch is then divided once more by a line, referred to as the 23 metre line or 25 yard line, positioned 22.90 m11 from every back line. Historically, this was initially employed to resume play immediately after the ball passed more than the back line and marked by flags at the side of the pitch. In 1949, deliberate defensive offenses in this location resulted in a penalty corner. From 1961, players on the defensive group who had been not involved at the penalty corner stood behind this line (this was then moved to the half-way line two years later). The line was also employed for the offside rule amongst 1987 till the rule was abolished in 1996.three These days, there are detailed guidelines relating to fouls and free of charge-hits in the 23 metre area of the pitch.12 Given that 2015, the 23 metre line has also been employed for the attacking group to resume play when it has gone more than the back line (this replaced lengthy corners).13

There are added markings 300 mm lengthy and perpendicular to the back line that denote distances of ten m and five m from every aim post. These are relevant at a penalty corner the former is the mark from which the attacking group requires the penalty corner and the latter is the closest position which a defender could stand. These marks had been five and ten yards (four.six and 9.1 m) in earlier versions of the guidelines.three There is a related mark five m from along the side line (from exactly where lengthy corners had been formerly taken) and a mark 14.six m along the side line indicating the level of the prime of the penalty circle. There are also 150 mm lengthy markings exactly where the aim posts are situated.14

Artificial playing surface

“artificial grass permits less complicated ball manage and this in itself assists to decrease the quantity of infringements of the rules—which indicates much less whistle and fewer stoppages. The game hence becomes less complicated to stick to, as properly as getting a more rapidly spectacle and substantially a lot more fascinating from a spectator point of view.”

Historically, the game was created on all-natural grass turf. Nonetheless, in 1976, the International Hockey Federation (FIH) produced artificial pitches mandatory at all significant competitions.17 The 1976 Summer season Olympics in Montreal was the initially of these nonetheless at this time couple of players had observed or played on synthetic pitches.18 Despite the fact that it is nevertheless permissible to play on all-natural turf all national competitions and international matches should be played on an artificial surface.19 Elite-level competitions, such as the Olympic Games and Globe Cup, need a water-primarily based playing surface. Nonetheless, due to water conservation efforts, this is not observed as a lengthy-term sustainable selection and option elite surfaces that do not need water are getting researched.20

There are 3 major varieties of artificial hockey pitch surface:

   • Unfilled or water-primarily based – artificial fibers that are densely packed for stabilization, needs irrigation or watering to keep away from pitch put on

    • Dressed or sand-dressed – artificial fibers can be much less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for aspect of the pile depth

    • Filled or sand-filled – artificial fibers can be longer and much less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for one hundred% of the pile depth

On water-primarily based pitches, shorter fibers and wetted turf decrease friction and boost the speed at which the game can be played. Nonetheless, these pitches need watering ahead of, for the duration of and immediately after the game and upkeep expenses are important.

Sand-dressed pitches price a lot more than sand-filled pitches but are preferable for hockey as there is an absence of sand close to the playing surface. Nonetheless, a multi-objective surface appropriate for sports like association football and tennis is usually needed and hockey could not be the predominant sport. There are lots of distinctive specifications and categorizations for artificial turf like shock absorption, surface rebound, friction, and strength outlined by the International Hockey Federation.26 Lately, longer-pile third-generation or 3G pitches have turn into well-liked, in particular for football, but these do not generally meet the FIH’s test criteria they are usually as well inconsistent and slow.27

Criticism

The Globe Hockey magazine reported on the initially hockey tournament played on an artificial pitch in 1975—a trial occasion in Montreal prior to the Olympics—and mentioned the surface had “huge positive aspects”.1516 Steve Ruskin, of Sports Illustrated, mentioned that “A slow, analytical game gave way to a single of nonstop, correct-hop action.”28 Nonetheless, it has been stated that the choice to make artificial surfaces mandatory significantly favored a lot more affluent Western nations who could afford these new pitches.29 Just before the switch to an artificial surface the Indian men’s hockey group had been dominant, winning seven of the eight Olympic gold medals amongst 1928 and 1964.28 In 1996, Indian hockey player Ajit Pal Singh stated that regardless of its size ” can afford only 12 or so Artificial Turf fields”.Sardara Singh, captain of the Indian men’s hockey group, mentioned that “hockey players in India play on astroturf [sic] for the initially time at the age of 19 or 20 and uncover it really hard to adapt.”29 Nonetheless, the Pakistan hockey group have performed properly following the modify of surface regardless of the nation getting worse off economically and getting fewer artificial pitches.16 When describing the modify of surface, Ruskin mentioned that “for India it was like beginning more than, with all nations even in field hockey

Field Hockey pitch Zithobeni

Why a Synthetic Hockey pitch?

The artificial surfaces of a synthetic hockey pitch give the players a lot more manage of the ball. Coupled with improved ball speed, hockey has turn out to be a more rapidly and a lot more fascinating game.

Additional info on Field Hockey pitch and building there of.

A hockey pitch is the playing surface for the game of field hockey. Historically, the game was played on all-natural turf (grass) but currently it is predominantly played on an artificial turf. The transition onto artificial pitches came through the 1970s and was created mandatory for big competitions in 1976. All the lines, markings and objective specifications are outlined by the International Hockey Federation in “The Guidelines of Hockey”.

All line markings on the pitch kind portion of the location which they define. For instance, a ball on the side line is nonetheless in the field of play a ball on the line of the penalty circle is in the penalty circle a foul committed more than the 23-metre (25-yard) line has occurred in the 23-metre location. A ball have to entirely cross a boundary line to be out of play, and a ball have to wholly cross the objective line ahead of a objective is scored.

Due to the original formulation of the guidelines in England, the common dimensions of a hockey pitch had been initially expressed in imperial units. The guidelines are now expressed explicitly in metric dimensions (considering that 1998), while the use of the imperial terms remains popular in some nations

Field of play on a hockey pitch

Colored pitches are utilized to distinguish the field of play (green or blue) from the run-off (red/blue/yellow/orange/and so on).

The hockey pitch is rectangular in shape. The longer perimeter edges are known as the side line, the opposing shorter edges are referred as the back line and the portion of this involving the objective posts is recognized as the objective line. The side line have to measure 91.40 m and the back line must measure 55.00 m. There have to be a minimum run-off of two m at the sidelines and three m at the backlines which may well be a various surface for the final meter. All line markings have to be white and 75 millimeters wide. In every single corner of the pitch, a corner flag of no a lot more than 300 mm square is attached to a post of height 1.20–1.50 m.

Historically, the pitch dimensions had been imperial and had been replaced by metric equivalents in 1998. The very first recorded guidelines represented what London clubs had been working with at the time. Surbiton Hockey Club’s minutes from 1876 stated that pitches had been to be “100–150 yards (91–137 m) lengthy and 50–80 yards (46–73 m) wide”. Guidelines by the Hockey Association of England in 1886 specified “one hundred yards lengthy by 55 to 60 yards (50 to 55 m) wide”.34 In 1905, the International Guidelines Board permitted the width of the pitch to be “up to 66 yards (60 m)” but this selection was reversed in 1909.five In 1975, the present width of 60 yards was written into the guidelines.34

On artificial surfaces, the field of play must be coloured green, ultramarine blue or signal blue. It is permitted for the run-off portion of the pitch to be an option colour. The London 2012 Olympics began a new trend for blue hockey pitches, mainly because blue turf aids tv viewers to clearly see the ball and markings on the hockey pitch through gameplay. Not all hockey pitches have to be blue, but a yellow ball on blue turf is now the common for skilled field hockey tournaments.

Objective

A hockey objective at the 1960 Summer time Olympics. The objective is deeper at ground level with side and backboards about the base.

Ambitions consist of two upright posts placed equidistant from the center of the backline, joined at the best by a horizontal crossbar. The inner edges of the posts have to be three.66 metres apart, and the decrease edge of the crossbar have to be two.14 metres (7 ft) above the ground. The goalposts and crossbar have to be white and rectangular in shape with width 50 millimetres and a depth of 50 to 75 millimeters (.

The objective have to be at least 1.20 m deep at ground level and at least .90 m deep at crossbar level. The objective location have to be delimited at ground level by a objective backboard and two sideboards of height 460 millimetres (18 in). Affixed to these boards, the posts and crossbar is a net to cease the ball.eight

Hockey nets can come in various dimensions based on how deep at ground level and at crossbar level the objective is. Standard dimensions for a common field hockey net are about three.7m (W) x two.1m (H) x 1.2m (D).7

The very first hockey ambitions had been “7 feet (two.1 m) tall posts placed six yards (five.five m) apart” but had been decreased to four yards (three.7 m) apart in the 1886 guidelines. In 1987, a rule was introduced so that at penalty corners “the very first hit at objective must not cross the objective-line larger than 18 inches (460 mm)”. This saw the introduction of a sideboard and backboard to the ambitions which are now mandatory.34

Circle

A view of the penalty circle (strong line), the broken circle five m from it, and the penalty spot.

A objective is scored when the ball passes entirely more than the objective line but only if the ball was played by an offensive player in the penalty circle. Moreover, the circle marks the location a goalkeeper may well play the ball with any portion of his physique and the location exactly where an infringement by a defender outcomes in a penalty corner. The terminology circle (or D) is broadly utilized while the location is in fact formed by a three.66-metre (four yd) straight line, parallel to the objective line, connected to two 14.63-metre (16 yd) quadrant arcs.910

The 1876 guidelines stated that “no ambitions shall be permitted if the ball be hit from a distance of a lot more than 15 yards (14 m) from the nearest goalpost”. A visible “striking circle” with “radius of 15 yards” was codified in 1886.34 The radius of the circle was improved to 16 yards (15 m) in 1951 for men’s hockey and 1968 for women’s hockey.five Any free of charge-hit inside five m of the circle has slightly various guidelines from other people regarding other players’ distance a broken circle five m from the penalty circle denotes this place.ten

A penalty spot is centrally positioned straight in front of the objective and utilized for a penalty stroke. The spot is 150 mm in diameter and its centre is six.475 m from the outdoors of the objective line.ten Penalty strokes had been introduced in 1963 for deliberately stopping a specific goal3 they had been initially taken eight yards (7.three m) from objective. In 1973, a stroke could also be awarded for a deliberate foul in the circle and the spot was moved to 7 yards (six.four m) from objective the following year.five

Other markings

Simon Gougnard prepares to take a penalty corner from the ten m mark. The five m line above demarcates the closest position a defender may well stand.

A half-way line, parallel to the back line, divides the pitch in two. The start out of every single period of play and resumption of play following a objective begins with all players in the half they are defending. The line was also utilized for the obselete offside rule.three

Every half of the pitch is then divided once again by a line, referred to as the 23 metre line or 25 yard line, positioned 22.90 m11 from every single back line. Historically, this was very first utilized to resume play right after the ball passed more than the back line and marked by flags at the side of the pitch. In 1949, deliberate defensive offenses in this location resulted in a penalty corner. From 1961, players on the defensive group who had been not involved at the penalty corner stood behind this line (this was then moved to the half-way line two years later). The line was also utilized for the offside rule involving 1987 till the rule was abolished in 1996.three Currently, there are detailed guidelines with regards to fouls and free of charge-hits in the 23 metre area of the pitch.12 Considering that 2015, the 23 metre line has also been utilized for the attacking group to resume play when it has gone more than the back line (this replaced lengthy corners).13

There are extra markings 300 mm lengthy and perpendicular to the back line that denote distances of ten m and five m from every single objective post. These are relevant at a penalty corner the former is the mark from which the attacking group requires the penalty corner and the latter is the closest position which a defender may well stand. These marks had been five and ten yards (four.six and 9.1 m) in earlier versions of the guidelines.three There is a comparable mark five m from along the side line (from exactly where lengthy corners had been formerly taken) and a mark 14.six m along the side line indicating the level of the best of the penalty circle. There are also 150 mm lengthy markings exactly where the objective posts are situated.14

Artificial playing surface

“artificial grass permits a lot easier ball manage and this in itself aids to lower the quantity of infringements of the rules—which signifies much less whistle and fewer stoppages. The game hence becomes a lot easier to stick to, as properly as becoming a more rapidly spectacle and significantly a lot more intriguing from a spectator point of view.”

Historically, the game was created on all-natural grass turf. Nevertheless, in 1976, the International Hockey Federation (FIH) created artificial pitches mandatory at all big competitions.17 The 1976 Summer time Olympics in Montreal was the very first of these on the other hand at this time handful of players had noticed or played on synthetic pitches.18 Even though it is nonetheless permissible to play on all-natural turf all national competitions and international matches have to be played on an artificial surface.19 Elite-level competitions, such as the Olympic Games and Planet Cup, need a water-primarily based playing surface. Nevertheless, due to water conservation efforts, this is not noticed as a lengthy-term sustainable selection and option elite surfaces that do not need water are becoming researched.20

There are 3 principal kinds of artificial hockey pitch surface:

   • Unfilled or water-primarily based – artificial fibers that are densely packed for stabilization, needs irrigation or watering to steer clear of pitch put on

    • Dressed or sand-dressed – artificial fibers can be much less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for portion of the pile depth

    • Filled or sand-filled – artificial fibers can be longer and much less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for one hundred% of the pile depth

On water-primarily based pitches, shorter fibers and wetted turf lower friction and enhance the speed at which the game can be played. Nevertheless, these pitches need watering ahead of, through and right after the game and upkeep expenses are considerable.

Sand-dressed pitches price a lot more than sand-filled pitches but are preferable for hockey as there is an absence of sand close to the playing surface. Nevertheless, a multi-objective surface appropriate for sports like association football and tennis is frequently necessary and hockey may well not be the predominant sport. There are a lot of various specifications and categorizations for artificial turf like shock absorption, surface rebound, friction, and strength outlined by the International Hockey Federation.26 Not too long ago, longer-pile third-generation or 3G pitches have turn out to be preferred, specially for football, but these do not generally meet the FIH’s test criteria they are frequently as well inconsistent and slow.27

Criticism

The Planet Hockey magazine reported on the very first hockey tournament played on an artificial pitch in 1975—a trial occasion in Montreal prior to the Olympics—and mentioned the surface had “huge positive aspects”.1516 Steve Ruskin, of Sports Illustrated, mentioned that “A slow, analytical game gave way to 1 of nonstop, accurate-hop action.”28 Nevertheless, it has been stated that the selection to make artificial surfaces mandatory tremendously favored a lot more affluent Western nations who could afford these new pitches.29 Just before the switch to an artificial surface the Indian men’s hockey group had been dominant, winning seven of the eight Olympic gold medals involving 1928 and 1964.28 In 1996, Indian hockey player Ajit Pal Singh stated that regardless of its size ” can afford only 12 or so Artificial Turf fields”.Sardara Singh, captain of the Indian men’s hockey group, mentioned that “hockey players in India play on astroturf [sic] for the very first time at the age of 19 or 20 and obtain it tough to adapt.”29 Nevertheless, the Pakistan hockey group have performed properly following the alter of surface regardless of the nation becoming worse off economically and possessing fewer artificial pitches.16 When describing the alter of surface, Ruskin mentioned that “for India it was like beginning more than, with all nations even in field hockey

Field Hockey pitch Zion City Moria

Why a Synthetic Hockey pitch?

The artificial surfaces of a synthetic hockey pitch give the players additional manage of the ball. Coupled with enhanced ball speed, hockey has come to be a more quickly and additional thrilling game.

Far more details on Field Hockey pitch and building there of.

A hockey pitch is the playing surface for the game of field hockey. Historically, the game was played on all-natural turf (grass) but currently it is predominantly played on an artificial turf. The transition onto artificial pitches came through the 1970s and was created mandatory for key competitions in 1976. All the lines, markings and purpose specifications are outlined by the International Hockey Federation in “The Guidelines of Hockey”.

All line markings on the pitch type element of the region which they define. For instance, a ball on the side line is nevertheless in the field of play a ball on the line of the penalty circle is in the penalty circle a foul committed more than the 23-metre (25-yard) line has occurred in the 23-metre region. A ball should totally cross a boundary line to be out of play, and a ball should wholly cross the purpose line just before a purpose is scored.

Due to the original formulation of the guidelines in England, the common dimensions of a hockey pitch have been initially expressed in imperial units. The guidelines are now expressed explicitly in metric dimensions (given that 1998), even though the use of the imperial terms remains prevalent in some nations

Field of play on a hockey pitch

Colored pitches are made use of to distinguish the field of play (green or blue) from the run-off (red/blue/yellow/orange/and so on).

The hockey pitch is rectangular in shape. The longer perimeter edges are referred to as the side line, the opposing shorter edges are referred as the back line and the portion of this amongst the purpose posts is recognized as the purpose line. The side line should measure 91.40 m and the back line ought to measure 55.00 m. There should be a minimum run-off of two m at the sidelines and three m at the backlines which might be a diverse surface for the final meter. All line markings should be white and 75 millimeters wide. In every corner of the pitch, a corner flag of no additional than 300 mm square is attached to a post of height 1.20–1.50 m.

Historically, the pitch dimensions have been imperial and have been replaced by metric equivalents in 1998. The very first recorded guidelines represented what London clubs have been employing at the time. Surbiton Hockey Club’s minutes from 1876 stated that pitches have been to be “100–150 yards (91–137 m) extended and 50–80 yards (46–73 m) wide”. Guidelines by the Hockey Association of England in 1886 specified “one hundred yards extended by 55 to 60 yards (50 to 55 m) wide”.34 In 1905, the International Guidelines Board permitted the width of the pitch to be “up to 66 yards (60 m)” but this selection was reversed in 1909.five In 1975, the present width of 60 yards was written into the guidelines.34

On artificial surfaces, the field of play ought to be coloured green, ultramarine blue or signal blue. It is permitted for the run-off portion of the pitch to be an option colour. The London 2012 Olympics began a new trend for blue hockey pitches, for the reason that blue turf assists tv viewers to clearly see the ball and markings on the hockey pitch through gameplay. Not all hockey pitches have to be blue, but a yellow ball on blue turf is now the common for expert field hockey tournaments.

Objective

A hockey purpose at the 1960 Summer time Olympics. The purpose is deeper at ground level with side and backboards about the base.

Ambitions consist of two upright posts placed equidistant from the center of the backline, joined at the best by a horizontal crossbar. The inner edges of the posts should be three.66 metres apart, and the decrease edge of the crossbar should be two.14 metres (7 ft) above the ground. The goalposts and crossbar should be white and rectangular in shape with width 50 millimetres and a depth of 50 to 75 millimeters (.

The purpose should be at least 1.20 m deep at ground level and at least .90 m deep at crossbar level. The purpose region should be delimited at ground level by a purpose backboard and two sideboards of height 460 millimetres (18 in). Affixed to these boards, the posts and crossbar is a net to cease the ball.eight

Hockey nets can come in diverse dimensions based on how deep at ground level and at crossbar level the purpose is. Standard dimensions for a common field hockey net are about three.7m (W) x two.1m (H) x 1.2m (D).7

The very first hockey ambitions have been “7 feet (two.1 m) tall posts placed six yards (five.five m) apart” but have been lowered to four yards (three.7 m) apart in the 1886 guidelines. In 1987, a rule was introduced so that at penalty corners “the very first hit at purpose ought to not cross the purpose-line greater than 18 inches (460 mm)”. This saw the introduction of a sideboard and backboard to the ambitions which are now mandatory.34

Circle

A view of the penalty circle (strong line), the broken circle five m from it, and the penalty spot.

A purpose is scored when the ball passes totally more than the purpose line but only if the ball was played by an offensive player in the penalty circle. Furthermore, the circle marks the region a goalkeeper might play the ball with any element of his physique and the region exactly where an infringement by a defender outcomes in a penalty corner. The terminology circle (or D) is broadly made use of even though the region is in fact formed by a three.66-metre (four yd) straight line, parallel to the purpose line, connected to two 14.63-metre (16 yd) quadrant arcs.910

The 1876 guidelines stated that “no ambitions shall be permitted if the ball be hit from a distance of additional than 15 yards (14 m) from the nearest goalpost”. A visible “striking circle” with “radius of 15 yards” was codified in 1886.34 The radius of the circle was enhanced to 16 yards (15 m) in 1951 for men’s hockey and 1968 for women’s hockey.five Any no cost-hit inside five m of the circle has slightly diverse guidelines from other folks regarding other players’ distance a broken circle five m from the penalty circle denotes this place.ten

A penalty spot is centrally positioned straight in front of the purpose and made use of for a penalty stroke. The spot is 150 mm in diameter and its centre is six.475 m from the outdoors of the purpose line.ten Penalty strokes have been introduced in 1963 for deliberately stopping a particular goal3 they have been initially taken eight yards (7.three m) from purpose. In 1973, a stroke could also be awarded for a deliberate foul in the circle and the spot was moved to 7 yards (six.four m) from purpose the following year.five

Other markings

Simon Gougnard prepares to take a penalty corner from the ten m mark. The five m line above demarcates the closest position a defender might stand.

A half-way line, parallel to the back line, divides the pitch in two. The commence of every period of play and resumption of play following a purpose begins with all players in the half they are defending. The line was also made use of for the obselete offside rule.three

Each and every half of the pitch is then divided once again by a line, referred to as the 23 metre line or 25 yard line, positioned 22.90 m11 from every back line. Historically, this was very first made use of to resume play just after the ball passed more than the back line and marked by flags at the side of the pitch. In 1949, deliberate defensive offenses in this region resulted in a penalty corner. From 1961, players on the defensive group who have been not involved at the penalty corner stood behind this line (this was then moved to the half-way line two years later). The line was also made use of for the offside rule amongst 1987 till the rule was abolished in 1996.three These days, there are detailed guidelines with regards to fouls and no cost-hits in the 23 metre area of the pitch.12 Considering that 2015, the 23 metre line has also been made use of for the attacking group to resume play when it has gone more than the back line (this replaced extended corners).13

There are added markings 300 mm extended and perpendicular to the back line that denote distances of ten m and five m from every purpose post. These are relevant at a penalty corner the former is the mark from which the attacking group requires the penalty corner and the latter is the closest position which a defender might stand. These marks had been five and ten yards (four.six and 9.1 m) in earlier versions of the guidelines.three There is a equivalent mark five m from along the side line (from exactly where extended corners have been formerly taken) and a mark 14.six m along the side line indicating the level of the best of the penalty circle. There are also 150 mm extended markings exactly where the purpose posts are situated.14

Artificial playing surface

“artificial grass permits much easier ball manage and this in itself assists to decrease the quantity of infringements of the rules—which signifies significantly less whistle and fewer stoppages. The game hence becomes much easier to stick to, as nicely as becoming a more quickly spectacle and considerably additional intriguing from a spectator point of view.”

Historically, the game was created on all-natural grass turf. Having said that, in 1976, the International Hockey Federation (FIH) created artificial pitches mandatory at all key competitions.17 The 1976 Summer time Olympics in Montreal was the very first of these nevertheless at this time couple of players had observed or played on synthetic pitches.18 While it is nevertheless permissible to play on all-natural turf all national competitions and international matches should be played on an artificial surface.19 Elite-level competitions, such as the Olympic Games and Planet Cup, call for a water-primarily based playing surface. Having said that, due to water conservation efforts, this is not observed as a extended-term sustainable solution and option elite surfaces that do not call for water are becoming researched.20

There are 3 major kinds of artificial hockey pitch surface:

   • Unfilled or water-primarily based – artificial fibers that are densely packed for stabilization, calls for irrigation or watering to steer clear of pitch put on

    • Dressed or sand-dressed – artificial fibers can be significantly less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for element of the pile depth

    • Filled or sand-filled – artificial fibers can be longer and significantly less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for one hundred% of the pile depth

On water-primarily based pitches, shorter fibers and wetted turf decrease friction and enhance the speed at which the game can be played. Having said that, these pitches call for watering just before, through and just after the game and upkeep fees are important.

Sand-dressed pitches expense additional than sand-filled pitches but are preferable for hockey as there is an absence of sand close to the playing surface. Having said that, a multi-goal surface appropriate for sports like association football and tennis is generally expected and hockey might not be the predominant sport. There are numerous diverse specifications and categorizations for artificial turf like shock absorption, surface rebound, friction, and strength outlined by the International Hockey Federation.26 Lately, longer-pile third-generation or 3G pitches have come to be well known, particularly for football, but these do not generally meet the FIH’s test criteria they are generally as well inconsistent and slow.27

Criticism

The Planet Hockey magazine reported on the very first hockey tournament played on an artificial pitch in 1975—a trial occasion in Montreal prior to the Olympics—and stated the surface had “massive positive aspects”.1516 Steve Ruskin, of Sports Illustrated, stated that “A slow, analytical game gave way to one particular of nonstop, accurate-hop action.”28 Having said that, it has been stated that the selection to make artificial surfaces mandatory tremendously favored additional affluent Western nations who could afford these new pitches.29 Prior to the switch to an artificial surface the Indian men’s hockey group have been dominant, winning seven of the eight Olympic gold medals amongst 1928 and 1964.28 In 1996, Indian hockey player Ajit Pal Singh stated that regardless of its size ” can afford only 12 or so Artificial Turf fields”.Sardara Singh, captain of the Indian men’s hockey group, stated that “hockey players in India play on astroturf [sic] for the very first time at the age of 19 or 20 and locate it challenging to adapt.”29 Having said that, the Pakistan hockey group have performed nicely following the alter of surface regardless of the nation becoming worse off economically and getting fewer artificial pitches.16 When describing the alter of surface, Ruskin stated that “for India it was like beginning more than, with all nations even in field hockey

Field Hockey pitch Zimbabwe

Why a Synthetic Hockey pitch?

The artificial surfaces of a synthetic hockey pitch give the players a lot more manage of the ball. Coupled with improved ball speed, hockey has turn into a quicker and a lot more fascinating game.

Extra data on Field Hockey pitch and building there of.

A hockey pitch is the playing surface for the game of field hockey. Historically, the game was played on organic turf (grass) but presently it is predominantly played on an artificial turf. The transition onto artificial pitches came throughout the 1970s and was produced mandatory for important competitions in 1976. All the lines, markings and objective specifications are outlined by the International Hockey Federation in “The Guidelines of Hockey”.

All line markings on the pitch kind portion of the region which they define. For instance, a ball on the side line is nonetheless in the field of play a ball on the line of the penalty circle is in the penalty circle a foul committed more than the 23-metre (25-yard) line has occurred in the 23-metre region. A ball should fully cross a boundary line to be out of play, and a ball should wholly cross the objective line just before a objective is scored.

Due to the original formulation of the guidelines in England, the regular dimensions of a hockey pitch had been initially expressed in imperial units. The guidelines are now expressed explicitly in metric dimensions (given that 1998), while the use of the imperial terms remains prevalent in some nations

Field of play on a hockey pitch

Colored pitches are utilized to distinguish the field of play (green or blue) from the run-off (red/blue/yellow/orange/and so on).

The hockey pitch is rectangular in shape. The longer perimeter edges are named the side line, the opposing shorter edges are referred as the back line and the portion of this among the objective posts is recognized as the objective line. The side line should measure 91.40 m and the back line really should measure 55.00 m. There should be a minimum run-off of two m at the sidelines and three m at the backlines which could be a unique surface for the final meter. All line markings should be white and 75 millimeters wide. In every corner of the pitch, a corner flag of no a lot more than 300 mm square is attached to a post of height 1.20–1.50 m.

Historically, the pitch dimensions had been imperial and had been replaced by metric equivalents in 1998. The initially recorded guidelines represented what London clubs had been employing at the time. Surbiton Hockey Club’s minutes from 1876 stated that pitches had been to be “100–150 yards (91–137 m) extended and 50–80 yards (46–73 m) wide”. Guidelines by the Hockey Association of England in 1886 specified “one hundred yards extended by 55 to 60 yards (50 to 55 m) wide”.34 In 1905, the International Guidelines Board permitted the width of the pitch to be “up to 66 yards (60 m)” but this selection was reversed in 1909.five In 1975, the existing width of 60 yards was written into the guidelines.34

On artificial surfaces, the field of play really should be coloured green, ultramarine blue or signal blue. It is permitted for the run-off portion of the pitch to be an option colour. The London 2012 Olympics began a new trend for blue hockey pitches, since blue turf aids tv viewers to clearly see the ball and markings on the hockey pitch throughout gameplay. Not all hockey pitches have to be blue, but a yellow ball on blue turf is now the regular for specialist field hockey tournaments.

Purpose

A hockey objective at the 1960 Summer season Olympics. The objective is deeper at ground level with side and backboards about the base.

Objectives consist of two upright posts placed equidistant from the center of the backline, joined at the leading by a horizontal crossbar. The inner edges of the posts should be three.66 metres apart, and the reduced edge of the crossbar should be two.14 metres (7 ft) above the ground. The goalposts and crossbar should be white and rectangular in shape with width 50 millimetres and a depth of 50 to 75 millimeters (.

The objective should be at least 1.20 m deep at ground level and at least .90 m deep at crossbar level. The objective region should be delimited at ground level by a objective backboard and two sideboards of height 460 millimetres (18 in). Affixed to these boards, the posts and crossbar is a net to quit the ball.eight

Hockey nets can come in unique dimensions based on how deep at ground level and at crossbar level the objective is. Standard dimensions for a regular field hockey net are about three.7m (W) x two.1m (H) x 1.2m (D).7

The initially hockey targets had been “7 feet (two.1 m) tall posts placed six yards (five.five m) apart” but had been lowered to four yards (three.7 m) apart in the 1886 guidelines. In 1987, a rule was introduced so that at penalty corners “the initially hit at objective really should not cross the objective-line greater than 18 inches (460 mm)”. This saw the introduction of a sideboard and backboard to the targets which are now mandatory.34

Circle

A view of the penalty circle (strong line), the broken circle five m from it, and the penalty spot.

A objective is scored when the ball passes fully more than the objective line but only if the ball was played by an offensive player in the penalty circle. Furthermore, the circle marks the region a goalkeeper could play the ball with any portion of his physique and the region exactly where an infringement by a defender outcomes in a penalty corner. The terminology circle (or D) is extensively utilized while the region is basically formed by a three.66-metre (four yd) straight line, parallel to the objective line, connected to two 14.63-metre (16 yd) quadrant arcs.910

The 1876 guidelines stated that “no targets shall be permitted if the ball be hit from a distance of a lot more than 15 yards (14 m) from the nearest goalpost”. A visible “striking circle” with “radius of 15 yards” was codified in 1886.34 The radius of the circle was improved to 16 yards (15 m) in 1951 for men’s hockey and 1968 for women’s hockey.five Any cost-free-hit inside five m of the circle has slightly unique guidelines from other individuals regarding other players’ distance a broken circle five m from the penalty circle denotes this place.ten

A penalty spot is centrally positioned straight in front of the objective and utilized for a penalty stroke. The spot is 150 mm in diameter and its centre is six.475 m from the outdoors of the objective line.ten Penalty strokes had been introduced in 1963 for deliberately stopping a particular goal3 they had been initially taken eight yards (7.three m) from objective. In 1973, a stroke could also be awarded for a deliberate foul in the circle and the spot was moved to 7 yards (six.four m) from objective the following year.five

Other markings

Simon Gougnard prepares to take a penalty corner from the ten m mark. The five m line above demarcates the closest position a defender could stand.

A half-way line, parallel to the back line, divides the pitch in two. The get started of every period of play and resumption of play following a objective begins with all players in the half they are defending. The line was also utilized for the obselete offside rule.three

Each and every half of the pitch is then divided once more by a line, referred to as the 23 metre line or 25 yard line, positioned 22.90 m11 from every back line. Historically, this was initially utilized to resume play just after the ball passed more than the back line and marked by flags at the side of the pitch. In 1949, deliberate defensive offenses in this region resulted in a penalty corner. From 1961, players on the defensive group who had been not involved at the penalty corner stood behind this line (this was then moved to the half-way line two years later). The line was also utilized for the offside rule among 1987 till the rule was abolished in 1996.three Presently, there are detailed guidelines with regards to fouls and cost-free-hits in the 23 metre area of the pitch.12 Given that 2015, the 23 metre line has also been utilized for the attacking group to resume play when it has gone more than the back line (this replaced extended corners).13

There are more markings 300 mm extended and perpendicular to the back line that denote distances of ten m and five m from every objective post. These are relevant at a penalty corner the former is the mark from which the attacking group requires the penalty corner and the latter is the closest position which a defender could stand. These marks had been five and ten yards (four.six and 9.1 m) in earlier versions of the guidelines.three There is a related mark five m from along the side line (from exactly where extended corners had been formerly taken) and a mark 14.six m along the side line indicating the level of the leading of the penalty circle. There are also 150 mm extended markings exactly where the objective posts are situated.14

Artificial playing surface

“artificial grass permits less difficult ball manage and this in itself aids to minimize the quantity of infringements of the rules—which signifies significantly less whistle and fewer stoppages. The game hence becomes less difficult to stick to, as effectively as getting a quicker spectacle and considerably a lot more fascinating from a spectator point of view.”

Historically, the game was created on organic grass turf. Nevertheless, in 1976, the International Hockey Federation (FIH) produced artificial pitches mandatory at all important competitions.17 The 1976 Summer season Olympics in Montreal was the initially of these nonetheless at this time handful of players had observed or played on synthetic pitches.18 While it is nonetheless permissible to play on organic turf all national competitions and international matches should be played on an artificial surface.19 Elite-level competitions, such as the Olympic Games and Globe Cup, need a water-primarily based playing surface. Nevertheless, due to water conservation efforts, this is not observed as a extended-term sustainable selection and option elite surfaces that do not need water are getting researched.20

There are 3 most important forms of artificial hockey pitch surface:

   • Unfilled or water-primarily based – artificial fibers that are densely packed for stabilization, calls for irrigation or watering to stay clear of pitch put on

    • Dressed or sand-dressed – artificial fibers can be significantly less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for portion of the pile depth

    • Filled or sand-filled – artificial fibers can be longer and significantly less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for one hundred% of the pile depth

On water-primarily based pitches, shorter fibers and wetted turf minimize friction and improve the speed at which the game can be played. Nevertheless, these pitches need watering just before, throughout and just after the game and upkeep fees are substantial.

Sand-dressed pitches expense a lot more than sand-filled pitches but are preferable for hockey as there is an absence of sand close to the playing surface. Nevertheless, a multi-objective surface appropriate for sports like association football and tennis is generally needed and hockey could not be the predominant sport. There are quite a few unique specifications and categorizations for artificial turf like shock absorption, surface rebound, friction, and strength outlined by the International Hockey Federation.26 Lately, longer-pile third-generation or 3G pitches have turn into common, specifically for football, but these do not ordinarily meet the FIH’s test criteria they are generally also inconsistent and slow.27

Criticism

The Globe Hockey magazine reported on the initially hockey tournament played on an artificial pitch in 1975—a trial occasion in Montreal prior to the Olympics—and stated the surface had “massive advantages”.1516 Steve Ruskin, of Sports Illustrated, stated that “A slow, analytical game gave way to one particular of nonstop, accurate-hop action.”28 Nevertheless, it has been stated that the selection to make artificial surfaces mandatory considerably favored a lot more affluent Western nations who could afford these new pitches.29 Just before the switch to an artificial surface the Indian men’s hockey group had been dominant, winning seven of the eight Olympic gold medals among 1928 and 1964.28 In 1996, Indian hockey player Ajit Pal Singh stated that in spite of its size ” can afford only 12 or so Artificial Turf fields”.Sardara Singh, captain of the Indian men’s hockey group, stated that “hockey players in India play on astroturf [sic] for the initially time at the age of 19 or 20 and discover it difficult to adapt.”29 Nevertheless, the Pakistan hockey group have performed effectively following the alter of surface in spite of the nation getting worse off economically and obtaining fewer artificial pitches.16 When describing the alter of surface, Ruskin stated that “for India it was like beginning more than, with all nations even in field hockey

Field Hockey pitch Zenzele

Why a Synthetic Hockey pitch?

The artificial surfaces of a synthetic hockey pitch give the players a lot more handle of the ball. Coupled with enhanced ball speed, hockey has turn out to be a more quickly and a lot more fascinating game.

Far more information and facts on Field Hockey pitch and building there of.

A hockey pitch is the playing surface for the game of field hockey. Historically, the game was played on organic turf (grass) but these days it is predominantly played on an artificial turf. The transition onto artificial pitches came throughout the 1970s and was created mandatory for key competitions in 1976. All the lines, markings and objective specifications are outlined by the International Hockey Federation in “The Guidelines of Hockey”.

All line markings on the pitch type portion of the location which they define. For instance, a ball on the side line is nonetheless in the field of play a ball on the line of the penalty circle is in the penalty circle a foul committed more than the 23-metre (25-yard) line has occurred in the 23-metre location. A ball need to absolutely cross a boundary line to be out of play, and a ball need to wholly cross the objective line prior to a objective is scored.

Due to the original formulation of the guidelines in England, the common dimensions of a hockey pitch have been initially expressed in imperial units. The guidelines are now expressed explicitly in metric dimensions (considering that 1998), despite the fact that the use of the imperial terms remains popular in some nations

Field of play on a hockey pitch

Colored pitches are employed to distinguish the field of play (green or blue) from the run-off (red/blue/yellow/orange/and so on).

The hockey pitch is rectangular in shape. The longer perimeter edges are named the side line, the opposing shorter edges are referred as the back line and the portion of this among the objective posts is identified as the objective line. The side line need to measure 91.40 m and the back line really should measure 55.00 m. There need to be a minimum run-off of two m at the sidelines and three m at the backlines which may possibly be a various surface for the final meter. All line markings need to be white and 75 millimeters wide. In every corner of the pitch, a corner flag of no a lot more than 300 mm square is attached to a post of height 1.20–1.50 m.

Historically, the pitch dimensions have been imperial and have been replaced by metric equivalents in 1998. The initially recorded guidelines represented what London clubs have been employing at the time. Surbiton Hockey Club’s minutes from 1876 stated that pitches have been to be “100–150 yards (91–137 m) extended and 50–80 yards (46–73 m) wide”. Guidelines by the Hockey Association of England in 1886 specified “one hundred yards extended by 55 to 60 yards (50 to 55 m) wide”.34 In 1905, the International Guidelines Board permitted the width of the pitch to be “up to 66 yards (60 m)” but this selection was reversed in 1909.five In 1975, the existing width of 60 yards was written into the guidelines.34

On artificial surfaces, the field of play really should be coloured green, ultramarine blue or signal blue. It is permitted for the run-off portion of the pitch to be an option colour. The London 2012 Olympics began a new trend for blue hockey pitches, simply because blue turf assists tv viewers to clearly see the ball and markings on the hockey pitch throughout gameplay. Not all hockey pitches have to be blue, but a yellow ball on blue turf is now the common for experienced field hockey tournaments.

Objective

A hockey objective at the 1960 Summer time Olympics. The objective is deeper at ground level with side and backboards about the base.

Targets consist of two upright posts placed equidistant from the center of the backline, joined at the prime by a horizontal crossbar. The inner edges of the posts need to be three.66 metres apart, and the reduced edge of the crossbar need to be two.14 metres (7 ft) above the ground. The goalposts and crossbar need to be white and rectangular in shape with width 50 millimetres and a depth of 50 to 75 millimeters (.

The objective need to be at least 1.20 m deep at ground level and at least .90 m deep at crossbar level. The objective location need to be delimited at ground level by a objective backboard and two sideboards of height 460 millimetres (18 in). Affixed to these boards, the posts and crossbar is a net to cease the ball.eight

Hockey nets can come in various dimensions based on how deep at ground level and at crossbar level the objective is. Common dimensions for a common field hockey net are about three.7m (W) x two.1m (H) x 1.2m (D).7

The initially hockey ambitions have been “7 feet (two.1 m) tall posts placed six yards (five.five m) apart” but have been decreased to four yards (three.7 m) apart in the 1886 guidelines. In 1987, a rule was introduced so that at penalty corners “the initially hit at objective really should not cross the objective-line larger than 18 inches (460 mm)”. This saw the introduction of a sideboard and backboard to the ambitions which are now mandatory.34

Circle

A view of the penalty circle (strong line), the broken circle five m from it, and the penalty spot.

A objective is scored when the ball passes absolutely more than the objective line but only if the ball was played by an offensive player in the penalty circle. In addition, the circle marks the location a goalkeeper may possibly play the ball with any portion of his physique and the location exactly where an infringement by a defender outcomes in a penalty corner. The terminology circle (or D) is broadly employed despite the fact that the location is basically formed by a three.66-metre (four yd) straight line, parallel to the objective line, connected to two 14.63-metre (16 yd) quadrant arcs.910

The 1876 guidelines stated that “no ambitions shall be permitted if the ball be hit from a distance of a lot more than 15 yards (14 m) from the nearest goalpost”. A visible “striking circle” with “radius of 15 yards” was codified in 1886.34 The radius of the circle was enhanced to 16 yards (15 m) in 1951 for men’s hockey and 1968 for women’s hockey.five Any no cost-hit inside five m of the circle has slightly various guidelines from other individuals regarding other players’ distance a broken circle five m from the penalty circle denotes this place.ten

A penalty spot is centrally positioned straight in front of the objective and employed for a penalty stroke. The spot is 150 mm in diameter and its centre is six.475 m from the outdoors of the objective line.ten Penalty strokes have been introduced in 1963 for deliberately stopping a specific goal3 they have been initially taken eight yards (7.three m) from objective. In 1973, a stroke could also be awarded for a deliberate foul in the circle and the spot was moved to 7 yards (six.four m) from objective the following year.five

Other markings

Simon Gougnard prepares to take a penalty corner from the ten m mark. The five m line above demarcates the closest position a defender may possibly stand.

A half-way line, parallel to the back line, divides the pitch in two. The commence of every period of play and resumption of play following a objective begins with all players in the half they are defending. The line was also employed for the obselete offside rule.three

Every single half of the pitch is then divided once again by a line, referred to as the 23 metre line or 25 yard line, positioned 22.90 m11 from every back line. Historically, this was initially employed to resume play soon after the ball passed more than the back line and marked by flags at the side of the pitch. In 1949, deliberate defensive offenses in this location resulted in a penalty corner. From 1961, players on the defensive group who have been not involved at the penalty corner stood behind this line (this was then moved to the half-way line two years later). The line was also employed for the offside rule among 1987 till the rule was abolished in 1996.three Presently, there are detailed guidelines with regards to fouls and no cost-hits in the 23 metre area of the pitch.12 Considering the fact that 2015, the 23 metre line has also been employed for the attacking group to resume play when it has gone more than the back line (this replaced extended corners).13

There are further markings 300 mm extended and perpendicular to the back line that denote distances of ten m and five m from every objective post. These are relevant at a penalty corner the former is the mark from which the attacking group requires the penalty corner and the latter is the closest position which a defender may possibly stand. These marks had been five and ten yards (four.six and 9.1 m) in earlier versions of the guidelines.three There is a related mark five m from along the side line (from exactly where extended corners have been formerly taken) and a mark 14.six m along the side line indicating the level of the prime of the penalty circle. There are also 150 mm extended markings exactly where the objective posts are situated.14

Artificial playing surface

“artificial grass permits less difficult ball handle and this in itself assists to decrease the quantity of infringements of the rules—which signifies significantly less whistle and fewer stoppages. The game therefore becomes less difficult to stick to, as effectively as getting a more quickly spectacle and substantially a lot more intriguing from a spectator point of view.”

Historically, the game was created on organic grass turf. Nevertheless, in 1976, the International Hockey Federation (FIH) created artificial pitches mandatory at all key competitions.17 The 1976 Summer time Olympics in Montreal was the initially of these on the other hand at this time handful of players had observed or played on synthetic pitches.18 While it is nonetheless permissible to play on organic turf all national competitions and international matches need to be played on an artificial surface.19 Elite-level competitions, such as the Olympic Games and Planet Cup, demand a water-primarily based playing surface. Nevertheless, due to water conservation efforts, this is not observed as a extended-term sustainable solution and option elite surfaces that do not demand water are getting researched.20

There are 3 principal varieties of artificial hockey pitch surface:

   • Unfilled or water-primarily based – artificial fibers that are densely packed for stabilization, demands irrigation or watering to keep away from pitch put on

    • Dressed or sand-dressed – artificial fibers can be significantly less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for portion of the pile depth

    • Filled or sand-filled – artificial fibers can be longer and significantly less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for one hundred% of the pile depth

On water-primarily based pitches, shorter fibers and wetted turf decrease friction and raise the speed at which the game can be played. Nevertheless, these pitches demand watering prior to, throughout and soon after the game and upkeep fees are important.

Sand-dressed pitches price a lot more than sand-filled pitches but are preferable for hockey as there is an absence of sand close to the playing surface. Nevertheless, a multi-goal surface appropriate for sports such as association football and tennis is frequently expected and hockey may possibly not be the predominant sport. There are lots of various specifications and categorizations for artificial turf such as shock absorption, surface rebound, friction, and strength outlined by the International Hockey Federation.26 Not too long ago, longer-pile third-generation or 3G pitches have turn out to be well known, specially for football, but these do not commonly meet the FIH’s test criteria they are frequently as well inconsistent and slow.27

Criticism

The Planet Hockey magazine reported on the initially hockey tournament played on an artificial pitch in 1975—a trial occasion in Montreal prior to the Olympics—and stated the surface had “huge added benefits”.1516 Steve Ruskin, of Sports Illustrated, stated that “A slow, analytical game gave way to one particular of nonstop, correct-hop action.”28 Nevertheless, it has been stated that the selection to make artificial surfaces mandatory tremendously favored a lot more affluent Western nations who could afford these new pitches.29 Just before the switch to an artificial surface the Indian men’s hockey group have been dominant, winning seven of the eight Olympic gold medals among 1928 and 1964.28 In 1996, Indian hockey player Ajit Pal Singh stated that regardless of its size ” can afford only 12 or so Artificial Turf fields”.Sardara Singh, captain of the Indian men’s hockey group, stated that “hockey players in India play on astroturf [sic] for the initially time at the age of 19 or 20 and locate it tough to adapt.”29 Nevertheless, the Pakistan hockey group have performed effectively following the transform of surface regardless of the nation getting worse off economically and possessing fewer artificial pitches.16 When describing the transform of surface, Ruskin stated that “for India it was like beginning more than, with all nations even in field hockey

Field Hockey pitch Zeerust

Why a Synthetic Hockey pitch?

The artificial surfaces of a synthetic hockey pitch give the players a lot more manage of the ball. Coupled with improved ball speed, hockey has develop into a more rapidly and a lot more thrilling game.

Extra information and facts on Field Hockey pitch and building there of.

A hockey pitch is the playing surface for the game of field hockey. Historically, the game was played on all-natural turf (grass) but currently it is predominantly played on an artificial turf. The transition onto artificial pitches came for the duration of the 1970s and was created mandatory for key competitions in 1976. All the lines, markings and aim specifications are outlined by the International Hockey Federation in “The Guidelines of Hockey”.

All line markings on the pitch kind component of the location which they define. For instance, a ball on the side line is nevertheless in the field of play a ball on the line of the penalty circle is in the penalty circle a foul committed more than the 23-metre (25-yard) line has occurred in the 23-metre location. A ball ought to entirely cross a boundary line to be out of play, and a ball ought to wholly cross the aim line ahead of a aim is scored.

Due to the original formulation of the guidelines in England, the normal dimensions of a hockey pitch have been initially expressed in imperial units. The guidelines are now expressed explicitly in metric dimensions (due to the fact 1998), while the use of the imperial terms remains typical in some nations

Field of play on a hockey pitch

Colored pitches are employed to distinguish the field of play (green or blue) from the run-off (red/blue/yellow/orange/and so on).

The hockey pitch is rectangular in shape. The longer perimeter edges are named the side line, the opposing shorter edges are referred as the back line and the portion of this among the aim posts is identified as the aim line. The side line ought to measure 91.40 m and the back line need to measure 55.00 m. There ought to be a minimum run-off of two m at the sidelines and three m at the backlines which might be a various surface for the final meter. All line markings ought to be white and 75 millimeters wide. In each and every corner of the pitch, a corner flag of no a lot more than 300 mm square is attached to a post of height 1.20–1.50 m.

Historically, the pitch dimensions have been imperial and have been replaced by metric equivalents in 1998. The very first recorded guidelines represented what London clubs have been employing at the time. Surbiton Hockey Club’s minutes from 1876 stated that pitches have been to be “100–150 yards (91–137 m) lengthy and 50–80 yards (46–73 m) wide”. Guidelines by the Hockey Association of England in 1886 specified “one hundred yards lengthy by 55 to 60 yards (50 to 55 m) wide”.34 In 1905, the International Guidelines Board permitted the width of the pitch to be “up to 66 yards (60 m)” but this choice was reversed in 1909.five In 1975, the present width of 60 yards was written into the guidelines.34

On artificial surfaces, the field of play need to be coloured green, ultramarine blue or signal blue. It is permitted for the run-off portion of the pitch to be an option colour. The London 2012 Olympics began a new trend for blue hockey pitches, due to the fact blue turf assists tv viewers to clearly see the ball and markings on the hockey pitch for the duration of gameplay. Not all hockey pitches have to be blue, but a yellow ball on blue turf is now the normal for skilled field hockey tournaments.

Aim

A hockey aim at the 1960 Summer season Olympics. The aim is deeper at ground level with side and backboards about the base.

Targets consist of two upright posts placed equidistant from the center of the backline, joined at the leading by a horizontal crossbar. The inner edges of the posts ought to be three.66 metres apart, and the reduced edge of the crossbar ought to be two.14 metres (7 ft) above the ground. The goalposts and crossbar ought to be white and rectangular in shape with width 50 millimetres and a depth of 50 to 75 millimeters (.

The aim ought to be at least 1.20 m deep at ground level and at least .90 m deep at crossbar level. The aim location ought to be delimited at ground level by a aim backboard and two sideboards of height 460 millimetres (18 in). Affixed to these boards, the posts and crossbar is a net to cease the ball.eight

Hockey nets can come in various dimensions based on how deep at ground level and at crossbar level the aim is. Common dimensions for a normal field hockey net are about three.7m (W) x two.1m (H) x 1.2m (D).7

The very first hockey targets have been “7 feet (two.1 m) tall posts placed six yards (five.five m) apart” but have been decreased to four yards (three.7 m) apart in the 1886 guidelines. In 1987, a rule was introduced so that at penalty corners “the very first hit at aim need to not cross the aim-line greater than 18 inches (460 mm)”. This saw the introduction of a sideboard and backboard to the targets which are now mandatory.34

Circle

A view of the penalty circle (strong line), the broken circle five m from it, and the penalty spot.

A aim is scored when the ball passes entirely more than the aim line but only if the ball was played by an offensive player in the penalty circle. On top of that, the circle marks the location a goalkeeper might play the ball with any component of his physique and the location exactly where an infringement by a defender final results in a penalty corner. The terminology circle (or D) is broadly employed while the location is in fact formed by a three.66-metre (four yd) straight line, parallel to the aim line, connected to two 14.63-metre (16 yd) quadrant arcs.910

The 1876 guidelines stated that “no targets shall be permitted if the ball be hit from a distance of a lot more than 15 yards (14 m) from the nearest goalpost”. A visible “striking circle” with “radius of 15 yards” was codified in 1886.34 The radius of the circle was improved to 16 yards (15 m) in 1951 for men’s hockey and 1968 for women’s hockey.five Any absolutely free-hit inside five m of the circle has slightly various guidelines from other people regarding other players’ distance a broken circle five m from the penalty circle denotes this place.ten

A penalty spot is centrally positioned straight in front of the aim and employed for a penalty stroke. The spot is 150 mm in diameter and its centre is six.475 m from the outdoors of the aim line.ten Penalty strokes have been introduced in 1963 for deliberately stopping a specific goal3 they have been initially taken eight yards (7.three m) from aim. In 1973, a stroke could also be awarded for a deliberate foul in the circle and the spot was moved to 7 yards (six.four m) from aim the following year.five

Other markings

Simon Gougnard prepares to take a penalty corner from the ten m mark. The five m line above demarcates the closest position a defender might stand.

A half-way line, parallel to the back line, divides the pitch in two. The begin of each and every period of play and resumption of play following a aim begins with all players in the half they are defending. The line was also employed for the obselete offside rule.three

Every half of the pitch is then divided once more by a line, referred to as the 23 metre line or 25 yard line, positioned 22.90 m11 from each and every back line. Historically, this was very first employed to resume play immediately after the ball passed more than the back line and marked by flags at the side of the pitch. In 1949, deliberate defensive offenses in this location resulted in a penalty corner. From 1961, players on the defensive group who have been not involved at the penalty corner stood behind this line (this was then moved to the half-way line two years later). The line was also employed for the offside rule among 1987 till the rule was abolished in 1996.three Currently, there are detailed guidelines with regards to fouls and absolutely free-hits in the 23 metre area of the pitch.12 Given that 2015, the 23 metre line has also been employed for the attacking group to resume play when it has gone more than the back line (this replaced lengthy corners).13

There are added markings 300 mm lengthy and perpendicular to the back line that denote distances of ten m and five m from each and every aim post. These are relevant at a penalty corner the former is the mark from which the attacking group requires the penalty corner and the latter is the closest position which a defender might stand. These marks had been five and ten yards (four.six and 9.1 m) in earlier versions of the guidelines.three There is a related mark five m from along the side line (from exactly where lengthy corners have been formerly taken) and a mark 14.six m along the side line indicating the level of the leading of the penalty circle. There are also 150 mm lengthy markings exactly where the aim posts are situated.14

Artificial playing surface

“artificial grass permits simpler ball manage and this in itself assists to decrease the quantity of infringements of the rules—which implies much less whistle and fewer stoppages. The game hence becomes simpler to comply with, as effectively as getting a more rapidly spectacle and substantially a lot more exciting from a spectator point of view.”

Historically, the game was created on all-natural grass turf. Having said that, in 1976, the International Hockey Federation (FIH) created artificial pitches mandatory at all key competitions.17 The 1976 Summer season Olympics in Montreal was the very first of these even so at this time handful of players had noticed or played on synthetic pitches.18 While it is nevertheless permissible to play on all-natural turf all national competitions and international matches ought to be played on an artificial surface.19 Elite-level competitions, such as the Olympic Games and Planet Cup, call for a water-primarily based playing surface. Having said that, due to water conservation efforts, this is not noticed as a lengthy-term sustainable solution and option elite surfaces that do not call for water are getting researched.20

There are 3 principal forms of artificial hockey pitch surface:

   • Unfilled or water-primarily based – artificial fibers that are densely packed for stabilization, calls for irrigation or watering to steer clear of pitch put on

    • Dressed or sand-dressed – artificial fibers can be much less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for component of the pile depth

    • Filled or sand-filled – artificial fibers can be longer and much less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for one hundred% of the pile depth

On water-primarily based pitches, shorter fibers and wetted turf decrease friction and improve the speed at which the game can be played. Having said that, these pitches call for watering ahead of, for the duration of and immediately after the game and upkeep expenses are substantial.

Sand-dressed pitches price a lot more than sand-filled pitches but are preferable for hockey as there is an absence of sand close to the playing surface. Having said that, a multi-goal surface appropriate for sports like association football and tennis is normally expected and hockey might not be the predominant sport. There are a lot of various specifications and categorizations for artificial turf like shock absorption, surface rebound, friction, and strength outlined by the International Hockey Federation.26 Not too long ago, longer-pile third-generation or 3G pitches have develop into preferred, specially for football, but these do not commonly meet the FIH’s test criteria they are normally as well inconsistent and slow.27

Criticism

The Planet Hockey magazine reported on the very first hockey tournament played on an artificial pitch in 1975—a trial occasion in Montreal prior to the Olympics—and stated the surface had “huge rewards”.1516 Steve Ruskin, of Sports Illustrated, stated that “A slow, analytical game gave way to one particular of nonstop, correct-hop action.”28 Having said that, it has been stated that the choice to make artificial surfaces mandatory significantly favored a lot more affluent Western nations who could afford these new pitches.29 Just before the switch to an artificial surface the Indian men’s hockey group have been dominant, winning seven of the eight Olympic gold medals among 1928 and 1964.28 In 1996, Indian hockey player Ajit Pal Singh stated that in spite of its size ” can afford only 12 or so Artificial Turf fields”.Sardara Singh, captain of the Indian men’s hockey group, stated that “hockey players in India play on astroturf [sic] for the very first time at the age of 19 or 20 and obtain it tough to adapt.”29 Having said that, the Pakistan hockey group have performed effectively following the adjust of surface in spite of the nation getting worse off economically and getting fewer artificial pitches.16 When describing the adjust of surface, Ruskin stated that “for India it was like beginning more than, with all nations even in field hockey

Field Hockey pitch Zebedeila

Why a Synthetic Hockey pitch?

The artificial surfaces of a synthetic hockey pitch give the players much more handle of the ball. Coupled with improved ball speed, hockey has come to be a quicker and much more thrilling game.

Extra details on Field Hockey pitch and building there of.

A hockey pitch is the playing surface for the game of field hockey. Historically, the game was played on all-natural turf (grass) but these days it is predominantly played on an artificial turf. The transition onto artificial pitches came throughout the 1970s and was created mandatory for important competitions in 1976. All the lines, markings and objective specifications are outlined by the International Hockey Federation in “The Guidelines of Hockey”.

All line markings on the pitch kind portion of the location which they define. For instance, a ball on the side line is nevertheless in the field of play a ball on the line of the penalty circle is in the penalty circle a foul committed more than the 23-metre (25-yard) line has occurred in the 23-metre location. A ball need to totally cross a boundary line to be out of play, and a ball need to wholly cross the objective line just before a objective is scored.

Due to the original formulation of the guidelines in England, the typical dimensions of a hockey pitch had been initially expressed in imperial units. The guidelines are now expressed explicitly in metric dimensions (considering that 1998), despite the fact that the use of the imperial terms remains widespread in some nations

Field of play on a hockey pitch

Colored pitches are utilised to distinguish the field of play (green or blue) from the run-off (red/blue/yellow/orange/and so on).

The hockey pitch is rectangular in shape. The longer perimeter edges are referred to as the side line, the opposing shorter edges are referred as the back line and the portion of this among the objective posts is recognized as the objective line. The side line need to measure 91.40 m and the back line really should measure 55.00 m. There need to be a minimum run-off of two m at the sidelines and three m at the backlines which may perhaps be a distinctive surface for the final meter. All line markings need to be white and 75 millimeters wide. In every single corner of the pitch, a corner flag of no much more than 300 mm square is attached to a post of height 1.20–1.50 m.

Historically, the pitch dimensions had been imperial and had been replaced by metric equivalents in 1998. The very first recorded guidelines represented what London clubs had been utilizing at the time. Surbiton Hockey Club’s minutes from 1876 stated that pitches had been to be “100–150 yards (91–137 m) lengthy and 50–80 yards (46–73 m) wide”. Guidelines by the Hockey Association of England in 1886 specified “one hundred yards lengthy by 55 to 60 yards (50 to 55 m) wide”.34 In 1905, the International Guidelines Board permitted the width of the pitch to be “up to 66 yards (60 m)” but this choice was reversed in 1909.five In 1975, the existing width of 60 yards was written into the guidelines.34

On artificial surfaces, the field of play really should be coloured green, ultramarine blue or signal blue. It is permitted for the run-off portion of the pitch to be an option colour. The London 2012 Olympics began a new trend for blue hockey pitches, since blue turf assists tv viewers to clearly see the ball and markings on the hockey pitch throughout gameplay. Not all hockey pitches have to be blue, but a yellow ball on blue turf is now the typical for experienced field hockey tournaments.

Target

A hockey objective at the 1960 Summer season Olympics. The objective is deeper at ground level with side and backboards about the base.

Objectives consist of two upright posts placed equidistant from the center of the backline, joined at the top rated by a horizontal crossbar. The inner edges of the posts need to be three.66 metres apart, and the decrease edge of the crossbar need to be two.14 metres (7 ft) above the ground. The goalposts and crossbar need to be white and rectangular in shape with width 50 millimetres and a depth of 50 to 75 millimeters (.

The objective need to be at least 1.20 m deep at ground level and at least .90 m deep at crossbar level. The objective location need to be delimited at ground level by a objective backboard and two sideboards of height 460 millimetres (18 in). Affixed to these boards, the posts and crossbar is a net to quit the ball.eight

Hockey nets can come in distinctive dimensions based on how deep at ground level and at crossbar level the objective is. Common dimensions for a typical field hockey net are about three.7m (W) x two.1m (H) x 1.2m (D).7

The very first hockey objectives had been “7 feet (two.1 m) tall posts placed six yards (five.five m) apart” but had been lowered to four yards (three.7 m) apart in the 1886 guidelines. In 1987, a rule was introduced so that at penalty corners “the very first hit at objective really should not cross the objective-line larger than 18 inches (460 mm)”. This saw the introduction of a sideboard and backboard to the objectives which are now mandatory.34

Circle

A view of the penalty circle (strong line), the broken circle five m from it, and the penalty spot.

A objective is scored when the ball passes totally more than the objective line but only if the ball was played by an offensive player in the penalty circle. On top of that, the circle marks the location a goalkeeper may perhaps play the ball with any portion of his physique and the location exactly where an infringement by a defender final results in a penalty corner. The terminology circle (or D) is extensively utilised despite the fact that the location is in fact formed by a three.66-metre (four yd) straight line, parallel to the objective line, connected to two 14.63-metre (16 yd) quadrant arcs.910

The 1876 guidelines stated that “no objectives shall be permitted if the ball be hit from a distance of much more than 15 yards (14 m) from the nearest goalpost”. A visible “striking circle” with “radius of 15 yards” was codified in 1886.34 The radius of the circle was improved to 16 yards (15 m) in 1951 for men’s hockey and 1968 for women’s hockey.five Any free of charge-hit inside five m of the circle has slightly distinctive guidelines from other folks regarding other players’ distance a broken circle five m from the penalty circle denotes this place.ten

A penalty spot is centrally positioned straight in front of the objective and utilised for a penalty stroke. The spot is 150 mm in diameter and its centre is six.475 m from the outdoors of the objective line.ten Penalty strokes had been introduced in 1963 for deliberately stopping a particular goal3 they had been initially taken eight yards (7.three m) from objective. In 1973, a stroke could also be awarded for a deliberate foul in the circle and the spot was moved to 7 yards (six.four m) from objective the following year.five

Other markings

Simon Gougnard prepares to take a penalty corner from the ten m mark. The five m line above demarcates the closest position a defender may perhaps stand.

A half-way line, parallel to the back line, divides the pitch in two. The commence of every single period of play and resumption of play following a objective begins with all players in the half they are defending. The line was also utilised for the obselete offside rule.three

Each and every half of the pitch is then divided once again by a line, referred to as the 23 metre line or 25 yard line, positioned 22.90 m11 from every single back line. Historically, this was very first utilised to resume play soon after the ball passed more than the back line and marked by flags at the side of the pitch. In 1949, deliberate defensive offenses in this location resulted in a penalty corner. From 1961, players on the defensive group who had been not involved at the penalty corner stood behind this line (this was then moved to the half-way line two years later). The line was also utilised for the offside rule among 1987 till the rule was abolished in 1996.three Currently, there are detailed guidelines with regards to fouls and free of charge-hits in the 23 metre area of the pitch.12 Considering the fact that 2015, the 23 metre line has also been utilised for the attacking group to resume play when it has gone more than the back line (this replaced lengthy corners).13

There are added markings 300 mm lengthy and perpendicular to the back line that denote distances of ten m and five m from every single objective post. These are relevant at a penalty corner the former is the mark from which the attacking group requires the penalty corner and the latter is the closest position which a defender may perhaps stand. These marks had been five and ten yards (four.six and 9.1 m) in earlier versions of the guidelines.three There is a related mark five m from along the side line (from exactly where lengthy corners had been formerly taken) and a mark 14.six m along the side line indicating the level of the top rated of the penalty circle. There are also 150 mm lengthy markings exactly where the objective posts are situated.14

Artificial playing surface

“artificial grass permits less difficult ball handle and this in itself assists to cut down the quantity of infringements of the rules—which signifies significantly less whistle and fewer stoppages. The game hence becomes less difficult to comply with, as properly as becoming a quicker spectacle and significantly much more intriguing from a spectator point of view.”

Historically, the game was created on all-natural grass turf. Nevertheless, in 1976, the International Hockey Federation (FIH) created artificial pitches mandatory at all important competitions.17 The 1976 Summer season Olympics in Montreal was the very first of these nonetheless at this time handful of players had noticed or played on synthetic pitches.18 Though it is nevertheless permissible to play on all-natural turf all national competitions and international matches need to be played on an artificial surface.19 Elite-level competitions, such as the Olympic Games and Globe Cup, demand a water-primarily based playing surface. Nevertheless, due to water conservation efforts, this is not noticed as a lengthy-term sustainable alternative and option elite surfaces that do not demand water are becoming researched.20

There are 3 key kinds of artificial hockey pitch surface:

   • Unfilled or water-primarily based – artificial fibers that are densely packed for stabilization, needs irrigation or watering to stay clear of pitch put on

    • Dressed or sand-dressed – artificial fibers can be significantly less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for portion of the pile depth

    • Filled or sand-filled – artificial fibers can be longer and significantly less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for one hundred% of the pile depth

On water-primarily based pitches, shorter fibers and wetted turf cut down friction and raise the speed at which the game can be played. Nevertheless, these pitches demand watering just before, throughout and soon after the game and upkeep fees are substantial.

Sand-dressed pitches price much more than sand-filled pitches but are preferable for hockey as there is an absence of sand close to the playing surface. Nevertheless, a multi-objective surface appropriate for sports which includes association football and tennis is usually needed and hockey may perhaps not be the predominant sport. There are quite a few distinctive specifications and categorizations for artificial turf which includes shock absorption, surface rebound, friction, and strength outlined by the International Hockey Federation.26 Lately, longer-pile third-generation or 3G pitches have come to be well known, particularly for football, but these do not commonly meet the FIH’s test criteria they are usually as well inconsistent and slow.27

Criticism

The Globe Hockey magazine reported on the very first hockey tournament played on an artificial pitch in 1975—a trial occasion in Montreal prior to the Olympics—and mentioned the surface had “massive positive aspects”.1516 Steve Ruskin, of Sports Illustrated, mentioned that “A slow, analytical game gave way to a single of nonstop, correct-hop action.”28 Nevertheless, it has been stated that the choice to make artificial surfaces mandatory significantly favored much more affluent Western nations who could afford these new pitches.29 Ahead of the switch to an artificial surface the Indian men’s hockey group had been dominant, winning seven of the eight Olympic gold medals among 1928 and 1964.28 In 1996, Indian hockey player Ajit Pal Singh stated that regardless of its size ” can afford only 12 or so Artificial Turf fields”.Sardara Singh, captain of the Indian men’s hockey group, mentioned that “hockey players in India play on astroturf [sic] for the very first time at the age of 19 or 20 and uncover it difficult to adapt.”29 Nevertheless, the Pakistan hockey group have performed properly following the transform of surface regardless of the nation becoming worse off economically and possessing fewer artificial pitches.16 When describing the transform of surface, Ruskin mentioned that “for India it was like beginning more than, with all nations even in field hockey

Field Hockey pitch ZastronContents

Why a Synthetic Hockey pitch?

The artificial surfaces of a synthetic hockey pitch give the players far more handle of the ball. Coupled with elevated ball speed, hockey has come to be a more quickly and far more thrilling game.

Additional facts on Field Hockey pitch and building there of.

A hockey pitch is the playing surface for the game of field hockey. Historically, the game was played on organic turf (grass) but today it is predominantly played on an artificial turf. The transition onto artificial pitches came in the course of the 1970s and was produced mandatory for big competitions in 1976. All the lines, markings and purpose specifications are outlined by the International Hockey Federation in “The Guidelines of Hockey”.

All line markings on the pitch kind portion of the region which they define. For instance, a ball on the side line is nonetheless in the field of play a ball on the line of the penalty circle is in the penalty circle a foul committed more than the 23-metre (25-yard) line has occurred in the 23-metre region. A ball will have to totally cross a boundary line to be out of play, and a ball will have to wholly cross the purpose line just before a purpose is scored.

Due to the original formulation of the guidelines in England, the regular dimensions of a hockey pitch had been initially expressed in imperial units. The guidelines are now expressed explicitly in metric dimensions (because 1998), while the use of the imperial terms remains typical in some nations

Field of play on a hockey pitch

Colored pitches are made use of to distinguish the field of play (green or blue) from the run-off (red/blue/yellow/orange/and so forth).

The hockey pitch is rectangular in shape. The longer perimeter edges are named the side line, the opposing shorter edges are referred as the back line and the portion of this among the purpose posts is recognized as the purpose line. The side line will have to measure 91.40 m and the back line need to measure 55.00 m. There will have to be a minimum run-off of two m at the sidelines and three m at the backlines which may possibly be a unique surface for the final meter. All line markings will have to be white and 75 millimeters wide. In every corner of the pitch, a corner flag of no far more than 300 mm square is attached to a post of height 1.20–1.50 m.

Historically, the pitch dimensions had been imperial and had been replaced by metric equivalents in 1998. The very first recorded guidelines represented what London clubs had been making use of at the time. Surbiton Hockey Club’s minutes from 1876 stated that pitches had been to be “100–150 yards (91–137 m) extended and 50–80 yards (46–73 m) wide”. Guidelines by the Hockey Association of England in 1886 specified “one hundred yards extended by 55 to 60 yards (50 to 55 m) wide”.34 In 1905, the International Guidelines Board permitted the width of the pitch to be “up to 66 yards (60 m)” but this choice was reversed in 1909.five In 1975, the present width of 60 yards was written into the guidelines.34

On artificial surfaces, the field of play need to be coloured green, ultramarine blue or signal blue. It is permitted for the run-off portion of the pitch to be an option colour. The London 2012 Olympics began a new trend for blue hockey pitches, simply because blue turf aids tv viewers to clearly see the ball and markings on the hockey pitch in the course of gameplay. Not all hockey pitches have to be blue, but a yellow ball on blue turf is now the regular for expert field hockey tournaments.

Target

A hockey purpose at the 1960 Summer season Olympics. The purpose is deeper at ground level with side and backboards about the base.

Targets consist of two upright posts placed equidistant from the center of the backline, joined at the major by a horizontal crossbar. The inner edges of the posts will have to be three.66 metres apart, and the reduce edge of the crossbar will have to be two.14 metres (7 ft) above the ground. The goalposts and crossbar will have to be white and rectangular in shape with width 50 millimetres and a depth of 50 to 75 millimeters (.

The purpose will have to be at least 1.20 m deep at ground level and at least .90 m deep at crossbar level. The purpose region will have to be delimited at ground level by a purpose backboard and two sideboards of height 460 millimetres (18 in). Affixed to these boards, the posts and crossbar is a net to quit the ball.eight

Hockey nets can come in unique dimensions based on how deep at ground level and at crossbar level the purpose is. Common dimensions for a regular field hockey net are about three.7m (W) x two.1m (H) x 1.2m (D).7

The very first hockey targets had been “7 feet (two.1 m) tall posts placed six yards (five.five m) apart” but had been lowered to four yards (three.7 m) apart in the 1886 guidelines. In 1987, a rule was introduced so that at penalty corners “the very first hit at purpose need to not cross the purpose-line greater than 18 inches (460 mm)”. This saw the introduction of a sideboard and backboard to the targets which are now mandatory.34

Circle

A view of the penalty circle (strong line), the broken circle five m from it, and the penalty spot.

A purpose is scored when the ball passes totally more than the purpose line but only if the ball was played by an offensive player in the penalty circle. On top of that, the circle marks the region a goalkeeper may possibly play the ball with any portion of his physique and the region exactly where an infringement by a defender final results in a penalty corner. The terminology circle (or D) is broadly made use of while the region is truly formed by a three.66-metre (four yd) straight line, parallel to the purpose line, connected to two 14.63-metre (16 yd) quadrant arcs.910

The 1876 guidelines stated that “no targets shall be permitted if the ball be hit from a distance of far more than 15 yards (14 m) from the nearest goalpost”. A visible “striking circle” with “radius of 15 yards” was codified in 1886.34 The radius of the circle was elevated to 16 yards (15 m) in 1951 for men’s hockey and 1968 for women’s hockey.five Any totally free-hit inside five m of the circle has slightly unique guidelines from other folks regarding other players’ distance a broken circle five m from the penalty circle denotes this place.ten

A penalty spot is centrally positioned straight in front of the purpose and made use of for a penalty stroke. The spot is 150 mm in diameter and its centre is six.475 m from the outdoors of the purpose line.ten Penalty strokes had been introduced in 1963 for deliberately stopping a particular goal3 they had been initially taken eight yards (7.three m) from purpose. In 1973, a stroke could also be awarded for a deliberate foul in the circle and the spot was moved to 7 yards (six.four m) from purpose the following year.five

Other markings

Simon Gougnard prepares to take a penalty corner from the ten m mark. The five m line above demarcates the closest position a defender may possibly stand.

A half-way line, parallel to the back line, divides the pitch in two. The start out of every period of play and resumption of play following a purpose begins with all players in the half they are defending. The line was also made use of for the obselete offside rule.three

Every half of the pitch is then divided once again by a line, referred to as the 23 metre line or 25 yard line, positioned 22.90 m11 from every back line. Historically, this was very first made use of to resume play just after the ball passed more than the back line and marked by flags at the side of the pitch. In 1949, deliberate defensive offenses in this region resulted in a penalty corner. From 1961, players on the defensive group who had been not involved at the penalty corner stood behind this line (this was then moved to the half-way line two years later). The line was also made use of for the offside rule among 1987 till the rule was abolished in 1996.three These days, there are detailed guidelines with regards to fouls and totally free-hits in the 23 metre area of the pitch.12 Given that 2015, the 23 metre line has also been made use of for the attacking group to resume play when it has gone more than the back line (this replaced extended corners).13

There are added markings 300 mm extended and perpendicular to the back line that denote distances of ten m and five m from every purpose post. These are relevant at a penalty corner the former is the mark from which the attacking group requires the penalty corner and the latter is the closest position which a defender may possibly stand. These marks had been five and ten yards (four.six and 9.1 m) in earlier versions of the guidelines.three There is a comparable mark five m from along the side line (from exactly where extended corners had been formerly taken) and a mark 14.six m along the side line indicating the level of the major of the penalty circle. There are also 150 mm extended markings exactly where the purpose posts are situated.14

Artificial playing surface

“artificial grass permits less complicated ball handle and this in itself aids to cut down the quantity of infringements of the rules—which implies much less whistle and fewer stoppages. The game as a result becomes less complicated to stick to, as properly as getting a more quickly spectacle and a lot far more intriguing from a spectator point of view.”

Historically, the game was created on organic grass turf. On the other hand, in 1976, the International Hockey Federation (FIH) produced artificial pitches mandatory at all big competitions.17 The 1976 Summer season Olympics in Montreal was the very first of these even so at this time couple of players had noticed or played on synthetic pitches.18 Though it is nonetheless permissible to play on organic turf all national competitions and international matches will have to be played on an artificial surface.19 Elite-level competitions, such as the Olympic Games and Planet Cup, demand a water-primarily based playing surface. On the other hand, due to water conservation efforts, this is not noticed as a extended-term sustainable selection and option elite surfaces that do not demand water are getting researched.20

There are 3 major varieties of artificial hockey pitch surface:

   • Unfilled or water-primarily based – artificial fibers that are densely packed for stabilization, needs irrigation or watering to prevent pitch put on

    • Dressed or sand-dressed – artificial fibers can be much less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for portion of the pile depth

    • Filled or sand-filled – artificial fibers can be longer and much less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for one hundred% of the pile depth

On water-primarily based pitches, shorter fibers and wetted turf cut down friction and boost the speed at which the game can be played. On the other hand, these pitches demand watering just before, in the course of and just after the game and upkeep fees are considerable.

Sand-dressed pitches price far more than sand-filled pitches but are preferable for hockey as there is an absence of sand close to the playing surface. On the other hand, a multi-objective surface appropriate for sports such as association football and tennis is frequently expected and hockey may possibly not be the predominant sport. There are numerous unique specifications and categorizations for artificial turf such as shock absorption, surface rebound, friction, and strength outlined by the International Hockey Federation.26 Not too long ago, longer-pile third-generation or 3G pitches have come to be well-known, specially for football, but these do not ordinarily meet the FIH’s test criteria they are frequently also inconsistent and slow.27

Criticism

The Planet Hockey magazine reported on the very first hockey tournament played on an artificial pitch in 1975—a trial occasion in Montreal prior to the Olympics—and mentioned the surface had “huge positive aspects”.1516 Steve Ruskin, of Sports Illustrated, mentioned that “A slow, analytical game gave way to a single of nonstop, accurate-hop action.”28 On the other hand, it has been stated that the choice to make artificial surfaces mandatory significantly favored far more affluent Western nations who could afford these new pitches.29 Just before the switch to an artificial surface the Indian men’s hockey group had been dominant, winning seven of the eight Olympic gold medals among 1928 and 1964.28 In 1996, Indian hockey player Ajit Pal Singh stated that in spite of its size ” can afford only 12 or so Artificial Turf fields”.Sardara Singh, captain of the Indian men’s hockey group, mentioned that “hockey players in India play on astroturf [sic] for the very first time at the age of 19 or 20 and discover it difficult to adapt.”29 On the other hand, the Pakistan hockey group have performed properly following the modify of surface in spite of the nation getting worse off economically and getting fewer artificial pitches.16 When describing the modify of surface, Ruskin mentioned that “for India it was like beginning more than, with all nations even in field hockey