Why a Synthetic Hockey pitch?
The artificial surfaces of a synthetic hockey pitch give the players a lot more handle of the ball. Coupled with improved ball speed, hockey has turn out to be a more rapidly and a lot more fascinating game.
Extra information and facts on Field Hockey pitch and building there of.
A hockey pitch is the playing surface for the game of field hockey. Historically, the game was played on organic turf (grass) but presently it is predominantly played on an artificial turf. The transition onto artificial pitches came for the duration of the 1970s and was created mandatory for important competitions in 1976. All the lines, markings and purpose specifications are outlined by the International Hockey Federation in “The Guidelines of Hockey”.
All line markings on the pitch kind aspect of the location which they define. For instance, a ball on the side line is nevertheless in the field of play a ball on the line of the penalty circle is in the penalty circle a foul committed more than the 23-metre (25-yard) line has occurred in the 23-metre location. A ball need to absolutely cross a boundary line to be out of play, and a ball need to wholly cross the purpose line prior to a purpose is scored.
Due to the original formulation of the guidelines in England, the regular dimensions of a hockey pitch have been initially expressed in imperial units. The guidelines are now expressed explicitly in metric dimensions (because 1998), while the use of the imperial terms remains widespread in some nations
Field of play on a hockey pitch
Colored pitches are utilised to distinguish the field of play (green or blue) from the run-off (red/blue/yellow/orange/and so forth).
The hockey pitch is rectangular in shape. The longer perimeter edges are named the side line, the opposing shorter edges are referred as the back line and the portion of this involving the purpose posts is identified as the purpose line. The side line need to measure 91.40 m and the back line really should measure 55.00 m. There need to be a minimum run-off of two m at the sidelines and three m at the backlines which could be a various surface for the final meter. All line markings need to be white and 75 millimeters wide. In every corner of the pitch, a corner flag of no a lot more than 300 mm square is attached to a post of height 1.20–1.50 m.
Historically, the pitch dimensions have been imperial and have been replaced by metric equivalents in 1998. The initial recorded guidelines represented what London clubs have been utilizing at the time. Surbiton Hockey Club’s minutes from 1876 stated that pitches have been to be “100–150 yards (91–137 m) extended and 50–80 yards (46–73 m) wide”. Guidelines by the Hockey Association of England in 1886 specified “one hundred yards extended by 55 to 60 yards (50 to 55 m) wide”.34 In 1905, the International Guidelines Board permitted the width of the pitch to be “up to 66 yards (60 m)” but this choice was reversed in 1909.five In 1975, the present width of 60 yards was written into the guidelines.34
On artificial surfaces, the field of play really should be coloured green, ultramarine blue or signal blue. It is permitted for the run-off portion of the pitch to be an option colour. The London 2012 Olympics began a new trend for blue hockey pitches, due to the fact blue turf assists tv viewers to clearly see the ball and markings on the hockey pitch for the duration of gameplay. Not all hockey pitches have to be blue, but a yellow ball on blue turf is now the regular for experienced field hockey tournaments.
A hockey purpose at the 1960 Summer season Olympics. The purpose is deeper at ground level with side and backboards about the base.
Targets consist of two upright posts placed equidistant from the center of the backline, joined at the best by a horizontal crossbar. The inner edges of the posts need to be three.66 metres apart, and the decrease edge of the crossbar need to be two.14 metres (7 ft) above the ground. The goalposts and crossbar need to be white and rectangular in shape with width 50 millimetres and a depth of 50 to 75 millimeters (.
The purpose need to be at least 1.20 m deep at ground level and at least .90 m deep at crossbar level. The purpose location need to be delimited at ground level by a purpose backboard and two sideboards of height 460 millimetres (18 in). Affixed to these boards, the posts and crossbar is a net to quit the ball.eight
Hockey nets can come in various dimensions based on how deep at ground level and at crossbar level the purpose is. Standard dimensions for a regular field hockey net are about three.7m (W) x two.1m (H) x 1.2m (D).7
The initial hockey targets have been “7 feet (two.1 m) tall posts placed six yards (five.five m) apart” but have been lowered to four yards (three.7 m) apart in the 1886 guidelines. In 1987, a rule was introduced so that at penalty corners “the initial hit at purpose really should not cross the purpose-line greater than 18 inches (460 mm)”. This saw the introduction of a sideboard and backboard to the targets which are now mandatory.34
A view of the penalty circle (strong line), the broken circle five m from it, and the penalty spot.
A purpose is scored when the ball passes absolutely more than the purpose line but only if the ball was played by an offensive player in the penalty circle. Moreover, the circle marks the location a goalkeeper could play the ball with any aspect of his physique and the location exactly where an infringement by a defender outcomes in a penalty corner. The terminology circle (or D) is broadly utilised while the location is truly formed by a three.66-metre (four yd) straight line, parallel to the purpose line, connected to two 14.63-metre (16 yd) quadrant arcs.910
The 1876 guidelines stated that “no targets shall be permitted if the ball be hit from a distance of a lot more than 15 yards (14 m) from the nearest goalpost”. A visible “striking circle” with “radius of 15 yards” was codified in 1886.34 The radius of the circle was improved to 16 yards (15 m) in 1951 for men’s hockey and 1968 for women’s hockey.five Any cost-free-hit inside five m of the circle has slightly various guidelines from other folks regarding other players’ distance a broken circle five m from the penalty circle denotes this place.ten
A penalty spot is centrally positioned straight in front of the purpose and utilised for a penalty stroke. The spot is 150 mm in diameter and its centre is six.475 m from the outdoors of the purpose line.ten Penalty strokes have been introduced in 1963 for deliberately stopping a particular goal3 they have been initially taken eight yards (7.three m) from purpose. In 1973, a stroke could also be awarded for a deliberate foul in the circle and the spot was moved to 7 yards (six.four m) from purpose the following year.five
Simon Gougnard prepares to take a penalty corner from the ten m mark. The five m line above demarcates the closest position a defender could stand.
A half-way line, parallel to the back line, divides the pitch in two. The start out of every period of play and resumption of play following a purpose begins with all players in the half they are defending. The line was also utilised for the obselete offside rule.three
Every half of the pitch is then divided once more by a line, referred to as the 23 metre line or 25 yard line, positioned 22.90 m11 from every back line. Historically, this was initial utilised to resume play right after the ball passed more than the back line and marked by flags at the side of the pitch. In 1949, deliberate defensive offenses in this location resulted in a penalty corner. From 1961, players on the defensive group who have been not involved at the penalty corner stood behind this line (this was then moved to the half-way line two years later). The line was also utilised for the offside rule involving 1987 till the rule was abolished in 1996.three Presently, there are detailed guidelines concerning fouls and cost-free-hits in the 23 metre area of the pitch.12 Considering the fact that 2015, the 23 metre line has also been utilised for the attacking group to resume play when it has gone more than the back line (this replaced extended corners).13
There are extra markings 300 mm extended and perpendicular to the back line that denote distances of ten m and five m from every purpose post. These are relevant at a penalty corner the former is the mark from which the attacking group requires the penalty corner and the latter is the closest position which a defender could stand. These marks had been five and ten yards (four.six and 9.1 m) in earlier versions of the guidelines.three There is a equivalent mark five m from along the side line (from exactly where extended corners have been formerly taken) and a mark 14.six m along the side line indicating the level of the best of the penalty circle. There are also 150 mm extended markings exactly where the purpose posts are situated.14
Artificial playing surface
“artificial grass permits less difficult ball handle and this in itself assists to minimize the quantity of infringements of the rules—which signifies significantly less whistle and fewer stoppages. The game hence becomes less difficult to stick to, as nicely as getting a more rapidly spectacle and substantially a lot more fascinating from a spectator point of view.”
Historically, the game was created on organic grass turf. On the other hand, in 1976, the International Hockey Federation (FIH) created artificial pitches mandatory at all important competitions.17 The 1976 Summer season Olympics in Montreal was the initial of these nonetheless at this time handful of players had observed or played on synthetic pitches.18 Though it is nevertheless permissible to play on organic turf all national competitions and international matches need to be played on an artificial surface.19 Elite-level competitions, such as the Olympic Games and Planet Cup, demand a water-primarily based playing surface. On the other hand, due to water conservation efforts, this is not observed as a extended-term sustainable selection and option elite surfaces that do not demand water are getting researched.20
There are 3 most important sorts of artificial hockey pitch surface:
• Unfilled or water-primarily based – artificial fibers that are densely packed for stabilization, demands irrigation or watering to steer clear of pitch put on
• Dressed or sand-dressed – artificial fibers can be significantly less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for aspect of the pile depth
• Filled or sand-filled – artificial fibers can be longer and significantly less densely packed and sand supports the fibers for one hundred% of the pile depth
On water-primarily based pitches, shorter fibers and wetted turf minimize friction and enhance the speed at which the game can be played. On the other hand, these pitches demand watering prior to, for the duration of and right after the game and upkeep expenses are substantial.
Sand-dressed pitches price a lot more than sand-filled pitches but are preferable for hockey as there is an absence of sand close to the playing surface. On the other hand, a multi-goal surface appropriate for sports like association football and tennis is frequently expected and hockey could not be the predominant sport. There are several various specifications and categorizations for artificial turf like shock absorption, surface rebound, friction, and strength outlined by the International Hockey Federation.26 Not too long ago, longer-pile third-generation or 3G pitches have turn out to be common, in particular for football, but these do not normally meet the FIH’s test criteria they are frequently also inconsistent and slow.27
The Planet Hockey magazine reported on the initial hockey tournament played on an artificial pitch in 1975—a trial occasion in Montreal prior to the Olympics—and mentioned the surface had “massive positive aspects”.1516 Steve Ruskin, of Sports Illustrated, mentioned that “A slow, analytical game gave way to 1 of nonstop, accurate-hop action.”28 On the other hand, it has been stated that the choice to make artificial surfaces mandatory drastically favored a lot more affluent Western nations who could afford these new pitches.29 Just before the switch to an artificial surface the Indian men’s hockey group have been dominant, winning seven of the eight Olympic gold medals involving 1928 and 1964.28 In 1996, Indian hockey player Ajit Pal Singh stated that regardless of its size ” can afford only 12 or so Artificial Turf fields”.Sardara Singh, captain of the Indian men’s hockey group, mentioned that “hockey players in India play on astroturf [sic] for the initial time at the age of 19 or 20 and come across it really hard to adapt.”29 On the other hand, the Pakistan hockey group have performed nicely following the modify of surface regardless of the nation getting worse off economically and obtaining fewer artificial pitches.16 When describing the modify of surface, Ruskin mentioned that “for India it was like beginning more than, with all nations even in field hockey